- 1 Summary
- 2 Adverse effects
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Animal studies
- 5 Legality
- 6 FAQ
- 6.1 1. What is N-Ethylpentylone?
- 6.2 2. How does N-Ethylpentylone affect the body?
- 6.3 3. What are the potential risks of using N-Ethylpentylone?
- 6.4 4. Is N-Ethylpentylone legal?
- 6.5 5. What are the withdrawal symptoms associated with N-Ethylpentylone?
- 6.6 6. When was N-Ethylpentylone classified as a controlled substance in the United States and Taiwan?
- 6.7 7. How can I stay safe if I suspect I’ve encountered N-Ethylpentylone?
- 6.8 8. Is there any legitimate use for N-Ethylpentylone?
- 7 References
N-Ethylpentylone, also known as β-keto-ethylbenzodioxolylpentanamine, βk-ethyl-K, βk-EBDP, or ephylone, is a synthetic cathinone and stimulant drug with its origins dating back to the 1960s.
This substance has emerged as a novel designer drug in various countries, including the United Kingdom, South Africa, New Zealand, the United States, and Australia. In 2018, N-ethylpentylone gained notoriety as the most frequently encountered drug of the cathinone class in seizures conducted by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
|CAS Number||727641-67-0 HCl: 17763-02-9|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||249.310 g·mol−1|
N-ethylpentylone has been associated with life-threatening heart palpitations and hallucinatory effects. Tragically, it has been linked to numerous overdose fatalities and incidents involving multiple casualties; Alarmingly, there has been a growing trend of it being deceptively marketed as MDMA.
N-ethylpentylone primarily functions as a dual inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake and dopamine reuptake. It effectively binds to transporters, exhibiting IC50 values of 37 nM for the dopamine transporter, 105 nM for the norepinephrine transporter, and 383 nM for the serotonin transporter. Interestingly, the presence of a methylenedioxy ring substitution enhances its ability to inhibit serotonin reuptake compared to its counterpart, N-ethylpentedrone.
Studies conducted in live mice revealed that when N-ethylpentylone was administered intraperitoneally, it led to a surge in locomotor activity, exhibited anxiolytic effects, but also triggered aggressive behaviour and deficits in social exploration. Repeated exposure to N-ethylpentylone resulted in symptoms such as hyperthermia, loss of appetite, and the development of rewarding effects. Following repeated administration and subsequent withdrawal, the mice displayed symptoms akin to depression, hyper locomotion, and a reduction in social exploration.
In the United States, N-ethylpentylone has been classified as a Schedule I controlled substance since June 2018.
Similarly, in Taiwan, N-ethylpentylone has been categorized as a controlled substance under Taiwan’s Controlled Drugs Act since December 2017.
1. What is N-Ethylpentylone?
N-ethylpentylone, also known as β-keto-ethylbenzodioxolylpentanamine or βk-EBDP, is a synthetic cathinone and stimulant drug.
2. How does N-Ethylpentylone affect the body?
N-ethylpentylone primarily acts as a mixed inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake and dopamine reuptake. It can induce effects such as increased locomotor activity, anxiolysis, aggressive behaviour, social exploration deficits, hyperthermia, anorexia, and rewarding effects, depending on the dose and frequency of use.
3. What are the potential risks of using N-Ethylpentylone?
N-ethylpentylone has been associated with various health risks, including heart palpitations, hallucinations, overdose deaths, and mass-casualty incidents. It has also been mis-sold as MDMA (Ecstasy), leading to unexpected and dangerous effects.
4. Is N-Ethylpentylone legal?
The legal status of N-Ethylpentylone varies by country. In some places, it is classified as a controlled substance due to its psychoactive properties, while in others, it may not be explicitly regulated.
5. What are the withdrawal symptoms associated with N-Ethylpentylone?
After repeated use, individuals may experience withdrawal symptoms such as depression-like symptoms, hyper locomotion, and a decrease in social exploration.
6. When was N-Ethylpentylone classified as a controlled substance in the United States and Taiwan?
In the United States, N-Ethylpentylone was categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance in June 2018. In Taiwan, it became a controlled substance under Taiwan’s Controlled Drugs Act in December 2017.
7. How can I stay safe if I suspect I’ve encountered N-Ethylpentylone?
To ensure your safety, it’s essential to avoid using substances of unknown origin or composition. Be cautious when purchasing drugs or substances, and seek help from medical professionals if you experience adverse effects or suspect exposure to harmful substances.
8. Is there any legitimate use for N-Ethylpentylone?
N-ethylpentylone is not approved for any legitimate medical or therapeutic use. It is primarily encountered in the context of recreational drug use and has been associated with risks to health and safety.
- Anvisa Regulation (2023): Anvisa, the Brazilian health regulatory agency, issued Collegiate Board Resolution No. 804 on July 24, 2023. This resolution pertains to the control and regulation of narcotic, psychotropic, precursor, and other substances in Brazil. It was published in the Diário Oficial da União on July 25, 2023, and archived on August 27, 2023.
- Patent GB 1085135: A patent titled “Substituted phenyl-α-amino ketones” was published in 1969 and assigned to Boehringer Sohn Ingelheim.
- Structural Chemistry Findings (2017): In October 2017, a study examined the hydrochloride hydrates of pentylone and dibutylone, as well as the hydrochloride salt of ephylone, revealing the structures of these novel designer cathinones.
- Toxicity Reports (2021): A study published in December 2021 discussed acute toxicity associated with the synthetic cathinone N-ethylpentylone (ephylone) in the United Kingdom, shedding light on its adverse effects.
- Special Ingredient Concerns (2016): An article from April 2016 raised concerns about the lack of an antidote for a potentially harmful substance referred to as a “killer drug’s special ingredient.”
- Misuse in New Zealand (2018): KnowYourStuffNZ reported on the presence of N-ethylpentylone as a concerning substance in the drug market in New Zealand in February 2018.
- Fatality Case (2017): A study from May 2017 examined a clinical case of an acute N-Ethylpentylone fatality, providing insights into its toxicological effects.
- Pill Testing Advocacy (2018): An article from 2018 discussed the potential benefits of pill testing at festivals and events in the context of substances like N-ethylpentylone.
- Emerging Threat Report (2018): The Drug Enforcement Administration’s Special Testing and Research Laboratory released its “Emerging Threat Report” in 2018, which may include information about substances like N-ethylpentylone.
- Drug Seizures in New Zealand (2018): In April 2018, a news report highlighted drug seizures in New Zealand, which may have involved N-ethylpentylone.
- Police Bust in Wellington (2018): In March 2018, law enforcement made arrests related to a drug ring in Wellington, which might have involved the distribution of N-ethylpentylone.
- Incidents in Christchurch (2018): Newshub NZ reported on hospitalizations in Christchurch in March 2018, linked to individuals taking drugs they believed to be MDMA, raising concerns about misrepresentation of substances like N-ethylpentylone.
- Quantitative Confirmation (2018): A study from September 2018 focused on the quantitative confirmation and metabolite identification of N-ethylpentylone in human biological specimens, shedding light on its detection.
- Thousands Seeking Pill Testing (2018): In September 2018, thousands of festivalgoers sought pill testing services, highlighting concerns about the presence of potentially harmful substances like N-ethylpentylone.
- Analytical Quantification (2019): In March 2019, a study provided analytical quantification, intoxication case series, and insights into the pharmacological mechanism of action for N-ethylnorpentylone (N-ethylpentylone or ephylone).
- Structure-Activity Relationship (2021): Research in 2021 explored the structure-activity relationship of second-generation synthetic cathinones, including N-ethylpentylone, elucidating their mechanisms of action.
- Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects (2022): A study from January 2022 delved into the behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated administration of N-ethylpentylone in mice.
- Legal Classification (2018): In June 2018, N-ethylpentylone was temporarily placed in Schedule I of controlled substances in the United States.
- Controlled Substance in Taiwan (2018): In January 2018, Taiwan increased control over substances like N-ethylpentylone under its Controlled Drugs Act.