4-Fluoromethamphetamine (4-FMA) is a stimulant substance that shares a chemical relationship with methamphetamine and 4-fluoroamphetamine. While it has been observed as being available as a designer drug, comprehensive knowledge regarding its pharmacological properties and potential toxicity remains limited.
Initially emerging in the context of legal highs in Japan around 2006, it later faced legal restrictions in 2008, making it illegal to sell or possess for distribution within the country. It’s important to note that this prohibition did not extend to simple personal possession.
Interestingly, 4-FMA was initially suspected of being present in a range of party pills distributed worldwide by the Israeli company Neorganics beginning around 2006. However, subsequent investigation revealed this was not the case, and the actual compound identified in those products was the closely related substance known as 2-fluoromethamphetamine.
|CAS Number||351-03-1 |
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID60874103|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||167.227 g·mol−1|
In Australia, 4-FMA is categorized as a Schedule 9 substance according to the Poisons Standard (October 2015). A Schedule 9 substance carries a risk of potential abuse or misuse, and its manufacture, possession, sale, or use is typically prohibited by law. Exceptions can be made for medical or scientific research, as well as for analytical, teaching, or training purposes, provided approval is granted by Commonwealth and State or Territory Health Authorities.
Since 1996, 4-FMA has been classified as a controlled substance in Canada due to its status as an analog of methamphetamine.
As of October 2015, China has designated 4-FMA as a controlled substance.
Given its close analog status to a scheduled controlled substance, the sale or possession of 4-FMA within the United States could potentially lead to prosecution under the Federal Analogue Act.
1. What is 4-Fluoromethamphetamine (4-FMA)?
4-Fluoromethamphetamine (4-FMA) is a stimulant substance related to methamphetamine and 4-fluoroamphetamine. It has garnered attention as a designer drug, although there is limited information available regarding its pharmacological properties and potential toxicity.
2. Is 4-FMA legal in Australia?
No, 4-FMA is considered a Schedule 9 substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015). This classification implies that its manufacture, possession, sale, or use is typically prohibited, except when required for medical or scientific research or analytical, teaching, or training purposes, with the approval of Commonwealth and State or Territory Health Authorities.
3. Is 4-FMA a controlled substance in Canada?
Yes, 4-FMA has been categorized as a controlled substance in Canada since 1996. This designation is due to its classification as an analog of methamphetamine.
4. What is the legal status of 4-FMA in China?
As of October 2015, 4-FMA is recognized as a controlled substance in China.
5. Can I possess or sell 4-FMA in the United States?
In the United States, due to its close analog status to a scheduled controlled substance, the sale or possession of 4-FMA could potentially lead to prosecution under the Federal Analogue Act. It is subject to legal restrictions.
- Branch, Legislative Services (2022-03-31). “Consolidated federal laws of Canada, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act”. laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2022-06-11. Retrieved 2022-08-11.
- Rösner P, Quednow B, Girreser U, Junge T (March 2005). “Isomeric fluoro-methoxy-phenylalkylamines: a new series of controlled-substance analogues (designer drugs)”. Forensic Science International. 148 (2–3): 143–56. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.05.003. PMID 15639609.
- Nagashima M, Seto T, Takahashi M, Suzuki J, Yasuda I (2006). “Spectrum Data of the 3rd Governor-designated Drugs and the Analyses of Uncontrolled Drugs Purchased” (PDF). Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health Annual Report (in Japanese). 57: 109–113. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- Camilleri A, Johnston MR, Brennan M, Davis S, Caldicott DG (April 2010). “Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone, and N-ethylcathinone”. Forensic Science International. 197 (1–3): 59–66. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.048. PMID 20074881.
- Cherner M, Bousman C, Everall I, Barron D, Letendre S, Vaida F, et al. (September 2010). “Cytochrome P450-2D6 extensive metabolizers are more vulnerable to methamphetamine-associated neurocognitive impairment: preliminary findings”. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 16 (5): 890–901. doi:10.1017/S1355617710000779. PMC 3543816. PMID 20727252.
- “Poisons Standard”. Federal Register of Legislation. Australian Government. October 2015.
- “关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知” (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- “Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Act Summary”. Erowid Analog Law Vault.