Brorphine is a piperidine-based opioid analgesic compound that first came to scientific attention in 2018. Initially, it was explored in research focused on functionally biased opioid compounds, with the aim of developing safer analgesics that induce less respiratory depression compared to conventional opioids. While it was initially reported as highly personal, more recent studies suggest that morphine may not exhibit significant bias.
Despite its potential, there is a shortage of safety information about morphine in animal models. Despite this lack of knowledge, morphine began appearing as a designer drug in mid-2019, first emerging in the U.S. Midwest and subsequently being detected in Belgium in 2020. In terms of its chemical structure, morphine bears similarities to compounds like benzyl fentanyl and bezitramide. However, it possesses sufficient structural distinctions to fall outside the formal classification of a “fentanyl analog” in regions such as the U.S. and New Zealand, which regulate this family of drugs through Markush structure controls.
Brorphine first gained attention in the U.S. recreational drug market around July 2020, as reported by the Center for Forensic Science Research and Education (CFSRE) through its NPS Discovery program. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) may have identified it as early as late 2019. The increase in morphine’s prevalence in the U.S. can be directly linked to the decline of isotonitazene due to scheduling by the DEA.
Tragically, morphine was initially linked to 20 deaths in the U.S., primarily in cases originating from Midwest states. It was commonly found in combination with fentanyl and flu alprazolam, a drug mixture verified through product testing. Moreover, morphine has been detected in counterfeit opioid pills and tablets. Data from CFSRE and NMS Labs indicate that morphine has been identified in over 100 cases as of October 2020.

IUPAC name
CAS Number2244737-98-0
PubChem CID145975294
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass400.320 g·mol−1


Brorphine is not subject to control under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs established in 1961. However, its sale, production, possession, or consumption for human use may be considered illegal in various countries, especially if it falls under the purview of Analogue Acts or similar legislation.

In the United States, on January 4th, 2021, the DEA temporarily placed Brorphine into Schedule I under emergency scheduling. On February 3rd, 2023, the DEA submitted formal proposals in the federal register to permanently include Brorphine in Schedule I.


  • What is Brorphine?
  • Brorphine is a piperidine-based opioid analgesic compound.
  • How was Brorphine discovered?
  • Morphine was initially discovered during research aimed at identifying functionally biased opioid compounds. The objective was to find safer analgesics that produced less respiratory depression compared to typical opioids.
  • What is the safety profile of Brorphine?
  • The safety profile of Brorphine has not been established in any animal model.
  • When did Brorphine first appear in the recreational drug supply?
  • Morphine was first identified in the U.S. recreational drug supply in July 2020, with earlier identifications possibly dating back to late 2019.
  • What is the connection between Brorphine and isotonitazene?
  • The rise of Brorphine in the U.S. is linked to the decline of isotonitazene, which the DEA scheduled.
  • Have there been any reported cases of Brorphine-related deaths?
  • Yes, Brorphine has been implicated in numerous deaths in the U.S., primarily in cases originating from midwestern states. It has often been found alongside other drugs like fentanyl and flu alprazolam.
  • Is Brorphine controlled under international drug control conventions?
  • Brorphine is not controlled under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs from 1961. However, its legality varies from one country to another.
  • What is the legal status of Brorphine in the United States?
  • In the United States, Brorphine was temporarily placed into Schedule I under emergency scheduling on January 4th, 2021. On February 3rd, 2023, the DEA initiated plans for the permanent placement of Brorphine into Schedule I.
  • Is Brorphine similar to other opioids or fentanyl analogs?
  • Brorphine shares some structural similarities with compounds like benzyl fentanyl and bezitramide, although it is distinct enough not to be classified as a “fentanyl analog” in some jurisdictions.
  • What precautions should be taken regarding Brorphine?
  • Due to its unregulated nature in many places, it’s essential to exercise caution and stay informed about the legality and potential risks associated with Brorphine, mainly when dealing with substances in the recreational drug market.


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