2C-D, also known as 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine or 2C-M, is a member of the 2C family of psychedelic compounds and is occasionally used as an entheogen. This substance was initially synthesized in 1970 by a team at the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences. Subsequently, its effects on humans were investigated by Alexander Shulgin. In his renowned work “PiHKAL,” Shulgin indicates that the typical dosage range for 2C-D is between 20 to 60 mg. Some individuals have explored lower doses of 10 mg or less for microdosing purposes.
Information regarding the toxicity of 2C-D remains limited, as comprehensive studies still need to be included. According to Shulgin, the effects of 2C-D typically persist for a duration of 4 to 6 hours. Shulgin himself described this substance as a “pharmacological tofu,” suggesting that when combined with other substances, it can enhance or extend their effects without significantly altering the overall experience, akin to how tofu absorbs the flavours of the sauces or spices it is prepared with.
Hanscarl Leuner, conducting research in Germany, delved into the therapeutic potential of 2C-D under the name LE-25 as part of psychotherapeutic research.
|3D model (JSmol)||Interactive image|
Drug prohibition laws
As of October 2015, 2C-D is categorized as a controlled substance in China.
Effective October 31, 2016, 2C-D is classified as a controlled substance (Schedule III) in Canada.
2C-D has been included in the list of Schedule B controlled substances in Denmark.
In Finland, 2C-D is listed in the government decree on psychoactive substances banned from the consumer market.
2C-D is designated as an Anlage I controlled drug in Germany.
In Sweden, the health ministry of Sveriges riksdag, Statens folkhälsoinstitut, has labeled 2C-D as a “health hazard” under the Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health (Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor) as of March 1, 2005. It is specifically listed as “2,5-dimetoxi-4-metylfenetylamin (2C-D),” rendering it illegal to sell or possess.
7. United States
2C-D was classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance in the United States as of July 9, 2012, with the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. On a state level, both Oklahoma and Pennsylvania list 2C-D under Schedule I.
1. What is 2C-D?
2C-D, or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine, is a member of the 2C family of psychedelic compounds and is sometimes used for its psychoactive effects.
2. How is 2C-D typically consumed?
2C-D is usually taken orally in the form of a pill or powder. It can also be insufflated (snorted), but this is less common.
3. Who first synthesized 2C-D?
2C-D was first synthesized in 1970 by a team from the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences. Its effects on humans were later investigated by Alexander Shulgin.
4. What is the recommended dosage range for 2C-D?
The typical dosage range for 2C-D, as listed in Alexander Shulgin’s “PiHKAL,” is between 20 to 60 mg. Some individuals have experimented with lower doses, such as 10 mg or less, for microdosing.
5. Is 2C-D legal?
The legal status of 2C-D varies by country and region. In many countries, including the United States, it is classified as a controlled substance. It’s crucial to be aware of and comply with local laws and regulations.
6. What is known about the safety and toxicity of 2C-D?
Limited information is available regarding the safety and long-term effects of 2C-D, as comprehensive studies are lacking. As with any psychedelic substance, there can be risks of adverse psychological reactions and potential harm to mental health. Responsible use and harm reduction should be a priority.
7. What is the duration of the effects of 2C-D?
According to Alexander Shulgin, the effects of 2C-D typically last for approximately 4 to 6 hours.
8. Can 2C-D be used for therapeutic purposes?
The therapeutic potential of 2C-D has not been extensively studied. It is not approved for medical or therapeutic use. If you are interested in psychedelic therapy, it’s advisable to explore legal and regulated options with substances like psilocybin or MDMA.
9. Are there any unique characteristics of 2C-D?
Alexander Shulgin referred to 2C-D as a “pharmacological tofu,” suggesting that it can enhance or extend the effects of other substances without significantly altering the overall experience when combined with them.
10. What is the historical context of 2C-D’s legal status?
Legal status has evolved, with many countries classifying it as a controlled substance. It’s important to stay informed about the specific laws in your region.
- In January 1970, a scientific paper titled “Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines” authored by Ho BT, Tansey LW, Balster RL, An R, McIsaac WM, and Harris RT, was published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. This paper delves into the chemistry and properties of amphetamine analogs, including methylated phenethylamines, contributing to the scientific understanding of these compounds.[^1^]
- 2C-D is an entry in PiHKAL, a notable book written by Alexander Shulgin. This book explores the chemistry and effects of various psychoactive compounds, including 2C-D, providing valuable insights into its properties and potential uses.[^2^]
- Nez, Hosteen, in 2015, contributed to the Erowid 2C-D Vault with a publication titled “Smart Pills.” This source offers information and experiences related to 2C-D, contributing to the knowledge available on this substance.[^3^]
- In China, specific regulations regarding non-medical use of controlled substances were issued by the China Food and Drug Administration on September 27, 2015, as indicated in “关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知” (in Chinese). These regulations have had implications on the legal status of certain substances, including 2C-D.[^4^]
- On May 4, 2016, significant changes to regulations governing controlled substances were introduced in Canada through the “Canada Gazette – Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Part J — 2C-phenethylamines).” These amendments, including those related to 2C-D, have legal consequences in the country.[^5^]
- In Denmark, 2C-D has been added to the list of Schedule B controlled substances, impacting its legal status within the country.[^6^]
- Finland has also addressed the legal status of 2C-D. The government decree on psychoactive substances banned from the consumer market is relevant to its regulation in Finland.[^7^][^8^]
- Germany classifies 2C-D as an Anlage I controlled drug, highlighting its legal restrictions in the country.[^9^]
- Sweden, on March 1, 2005, labeled 2C-D as a “health hazard” under the Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health (Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor). It is listed as “2,5-dimetoxi-4-metylfenetylamin (2C-D),” making its sale or possession illegal in the country, according to the regulation SFS 2005:26.[^10^]
- In the United States, 2C-D became a Schedule I Controlled Substance as of July 9, 2012, with the signing of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. Additionally, on a state level, both Oklahoma and Pennsylvania list 2C-D under schedule I, further restricting its legal status within those states.