4-Methoxyphencyclidine, also known as methoxydine or 4-MeO-PCP, is a dissociative anesthetic drug that has been made available for purchase as a research chemical via online channels. The synthesis of 4-MeO-PCP traces back to 1965 when Victor Maddox, a medicinal chemist at Parke-Davis, first documented its production. In 1999, an anonymous chemist using the pseudonym John Q. Beagle published a review suggesting that the potency of 4-MeO-PCP in humans was somewhat diminished compared to PCP. Subsequently, Beagle provided a detailed account of the synthesis and qualitative effects of 4-MeO-PCP, indicating that it possessed roughly 70% of PCP’s potency.
4-MeO-PCP holds the distinction of being the first arylcyclohexylamine research chemical to be introduced in the online market. This occurred in late 2008 through a company operating under the name CBAY. It was followed by the emergence of several related compounds, including 3-MeO-PCP and methoxetamine.
While 4-MeO-PCP exhibits a lower affinity for the NMDA receptor compared to PCP, it demonstrates a higher affinity than ketamine. It is orally active, with a dosage range similar to ketamine. However, it’s worth noting that some users have reported needing doses exceeding 100 mg to achieve their desired effects. Discrepancies in the active quantity can, in part, be attributed to the presence of unreacted PCC and other impurities in samples obtained from unregulated sources.
Regarding its receptor affinity, 4-MeO-PCP has Ki values of 404 nM for the NMDA receptor, 713 nM for the norepinephrine transporter, 844 nM for the serotonin transporter, 296 nM for the σ1 receptor, and 143 nM for the σ2 receptor. These values shed light on its pharmacological profile and interactions with various receptors in the human body.
|CAS Number||2201-35-6 |
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID40176450|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||273.420 g·mol−1|
A fatality occurred as a result of the combined use of 4-MeO-PCP with 4-HO-MET, venlafaxine, olanzapine, lorazepam, and hydroxyzine.
On October 18, 2012, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs in the United Kingdom issued a report regarding methoxetamine, in which they asserted that the “harms of methoxetamine are in line with Class B under the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971),” notwithstanding the act’s non-consideration of drug classification based on harm. The report further recommended that all analogs of MXE be designated as Class B substances and proposed a broad catch-all provision encompassing both known and unexplored arylcyclohexamines, including 4-MeO-PCP.
Sweden’s public health agency, on November 10, 2014, suggested to classify 4-MeO-PCP as a hazardous substance.
Under Chile’s Ley de drogas, also known as Ley 20000, all esters and ethers of PCP are prohibited. Since 4-MeO-PCP is categorized as an ether of PCP, it is thus deemed illegal under this law.
1. What is 4-MeO-PCP?
4-Methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP) is a synthetic dissociative anesthetic drug, often categorized as a research chemical known for its mind-altering effects.
2. How is 4-MeO-PCP used?
4-MeO-PCP is typically used by ingestion, inhalation, or insufflation (snorting). It is essential to note that the use of this substance may carry legal and health risks.
3. What are the effects of 4-MeO-PCP?
The effects of 4-MeO-PCP can include dissociation from reality, altered sensory perception, hallucinations, and impaired motor skills and cognitive function. Users may experience both desired and adverse effects.
4. Is 4-MeO-PCP legal?
The legal status of 4-MeO-PCP varies by country and jurisdiction. In many places, it is not approved for human consumption and may be subject to legal restrictions.
5. What are the potential risks and side effects of 4-MeO-PCP?
Using 4-MeO-PCP can lead to a range of side effects, including disorientation, anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations. The substance may also have long-term effects on mental health. Responsible and cautious use is crucial.
6. Can 4-MeO-PCP be detected in drug tests?
Specialized drug tests can detect the presence of 4-MeO-PCP if screened explicitly for. Standard drug tests typically do not identify it.
7. Is 4-MeO-PCP addictive?
There is evidence to suggest that 4-MeO-PCP can be habit-forming, leading to dependence in some individuals. It should be used with care and moderation.
8. Is 4-MeO-PCP used for medical purposes?
4-MeO-PCP is not approved for medical use and is primarily associated with recreational or research purposes. Self-medicating with this substance is strongly discouraged.
9. What precautions should I take if I plan to use 4-MeO-PCP?
If you choose to use 4-MeO-PCP, it is crucial to understand and respect the potential risks. Always start with a low dose, use it in a safe environment, and avoid mixing it with other substances. Do not drive or operate heavy machinery under its influence.
10. Where can I find more information about 4-MeO-PCP?
For additional information about 4-MeO-PCP, its effects, legal status, and potential risks, consider consulting with a healthcare professional or referring to authoritative sources like scientific literature, government health agencies, and reputable drug education websites.
- In 2014, Morris and Wallach conducted a thorough analysis titled “From PCP to MXE: A Comprehensive Review of the Non-Medical Use of Dissociative Drugs.” This study delved into the evolving landscape of dissociative substances, shedding light on their non-medical applications and effects on users.
- King (2009) discussed emerging substances in a presentation at the EMCDDA Conference, providing insights into the challenges of detecting new drugs and understanding their characteristics.
- Roth, Gibbons, Arunotayanun, and their team (2013) explored the pharmacological properties of ketamine analogue methoxetamine and 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine. They discovered that these compounds serve as high-affinity and selective ligands for the glutamate NMDA receptor, enhancing our understanding of their potential effects.
- Wallach, De Paoli, Adejare, and Brandt (2013) conducted a study on the preparation and analytical characterization of 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) and 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine (PCPy) analogues. Their research contributed to our knowledge of these substances’ chemical properties and structural variations.
- McIntyre, Trochta, Gary, Storey, Corneal, and Schaber (2015) reported a fatality related to two novel hallucinogenic compounds: 4-Methoxyphencyclidine and 4-Hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine. This tragic incident highlighted the potential dangers associated with these substances.
- In 2012, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) in the United Kingdom released a report on methoxetamine, addressing its classification under the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971). This report raised questions about the classification of related analogues, including 4-MeO-PCP.
- Sweden’s public health agency, on November 10, 2014, proposed classifying 4-MeO-PCP as a hazardous substance, underscoring its potential risks and impacts on health.
- Under Chile’s Ley de drogas, all esters and ethers of PCP are deemed illegal. Since 4-MeO-PCP is classified as an ether of PCP, it falls within this legal restriction.
- In Spain, a law passed in 2015, “Sustituye La Ley Nº 19.366,” dealt with the illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, highlighting the legal framework concerning such compounds.