Threo-4-methylmethylphenidate (4-MeTMP) is a stimulant drug with a chemical relationship with methylphenidate. While it is akin to methylphenidate, its stimulant properties are somewhat milder, and it exhibits relatively limited effectiveness in inhibiting dopamine reuptake despite its high binding affinity. This unique profile has prompted investigations into its potential use as an alternative treatment for stimulant abuse, akin to cocaine. Conversely, other straightforward ring-substituted derivatives of the-methylphenidate, such as the 4-fluoro and 3-chloro variants, surpass methylphenidate’s efficiency as dopamine reuptake inhibitors and in animal drug discrimination tests.
|CAS Number||191790-79-1 |
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||247.338 g·mol−1|
4-Methylmethylphenidate faced legal restrictions in various countries due to its sale and use as an unapproved designer drug:
- In the United Kingdom, 4-methylmethylphenidate was classified as a Temporary Class Drug from June 2015. This classification followed its unauthorized distribution as a designer drug.
- In the United States, the legal status of 4-Methylmethylphenidate may be determined by the federal analog act if it is intended for human consumption. This act identifies it as a structural analog of Methylphenidate, potentially rendering it illegal.
- In a recent development in the United States, on September 22, 2023, the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) initiated a proposed rule to categorize Ethylphenidate as a Schedule I substance, encompassing its isomers. 4-Methylmethylphenidate is a positional isomer of Ethylphenidate. Therefore, if Ethylphenidate is scheduled as a controlled substance, 4-methylmethylphenidate would also fall under Schedule I. The public comment period is open until November 21, 2023.
These legal measures and proposals reflect efforts to regulate and control substances with potential health and safety risks. It’s essential to stay informed about the legal status of specific substances in your region and to comply with relevant laws and regulations.
1. What is Threo-4-Methylmethylphenidate (4-MeTMP)?
Threo-4-Methylmethylphenidate (4-MeTMP) is a stimulant drug that shares structural similarities with methylphenidate, a commonly prescribed medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is known for its stimulant properties.
2. How does 4-MeTMP differ from methylphenidate?
While 4-MeTMP is chemically related to methylphenidate, it is generally considered less potent. Despite its high binding affinity, it also has relatively low efficacy in blocking dopamine reuptake. This unique profile has led to investigations into its potential use as a substitute treatment for stimulant abuse.
3. Can 4-MeTMP be used as a substitute drug for stimulant abuse?
Research has explored the potential of 4-MeTMP as a substitute for treating stimulant abuse, similar to how cocaine is studied. However, its effectiveness may vary among individuals and needs further investigation.
4. Are there more potent derivatives of threo-methylphenidate?
Yes, other derivatives of the-methylphenidate, such as 4-fluoro and 3-chloro compounds, are more potent than methylphenidate. They exhibit greater efficiency as dopamine reuptake inhibitors and have shown promising results in animal drug discrimination tests.
5. Is 4-MeTMP available for medical use?
As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, 4-MeTMP was not approved for medical use and was primarily used in research settings. Regulations and approval status may change, so checking with relevant authorities or healthcare professionals for the most current information is essential.
6. Are there any known side effects of 4-MeTMP?
The specific side effects of 4-MeTMP can vary, and research on its safety profile may be limited. Since it is chemically related to stimulants, potential side effects could include increased heart rate, restlessness, and insomnia. However, more comprehensive studies are needed to determine its full range of effects and risks.
7. Is 4-MeTMP legal to possess or use?
The legal status of 4-MeTMP can vary by country and region. It’s important to know the laws and regulations regarding its possession and use in your area. Laws related to designer drugs and research chemicals can change, so staying informed about the latest regulations is crucial.
8. Is 4-MeTMP addictive?
As with many stimulant drugs, there is a potential for addiction to 4-MeTMP. Its stimulating effects may lead to psychological dependence. If you have concerns about substance use or addiction, it’s advisable to seek assistance from a healthcare professional or addiction specialist.
9. Can I use 4-MeTMP recreationally?
Recreational use of 4-MeTMP can be risky, especially due to its limited research and potential health risks. Engaging in recreational use of substances with unclear safety profiles can lead to adverse effects and legal consequences. It’s crucial to prioritize your health and well-being.
10. Where can I find more information about 4-MeTMP?
To obtain the most up-to-date and accurate information about 4-MeTMP, you should refer to scientific literature, relevant authorities, or medical professionals specializing in substance use and treatment.
Please note that the information provided here is based on the knowledge available as of September 2021, and the legal status and research findings on 4-MeTMP may have evolved since then. Always exercise caution and follow the laws and regulations in your area.
- Wayment HK, Deutsch H, Schweri MM, Schenk JO (March 1999). “Exploring the Effects of Methylphenidate Analogues on Phenethylamine Substrates for the Striatal Dopamine Transporter: Do They Hold Potential as Amphetamine Antagonists?”. This study was published in the Journal of Neurochemistry (Volume 72, Issue 3, Pages 1266–74) and delves into the impact of methylphenidate analogs on substrates related to phenethylamines and their interactions with the striatal dopamine transporter. The research investigates their potential as antagonists to amphetamine effects.
- Deutsch HM, Shi Q, Gruszecka-Kowalik E, Schweri MM (March 1996). “Synthesis and Pharmacology of Possible Cocaine Antagonists: A Study on the Structure-Activity Relationship of Aromatic Ring-Substituted Methylphenidate Analogs”. Published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 1201–9), this research explores the synthesis and pharmacology of methylphenidate analogs. It specifically investigates how different structural modifications, such as aromatic ring substitutions, affect their properties.
- Schweri MM, Deutsch HM, Massey AT, Holtzman SG (May 2002). “Comprehensive Biochemical and Behavioral Characterization of Novel Methylphenidate Analogs”. This study, featured in The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Volume 301, Issue 2, Pages 527–35), provides a detailed exploration of the biochemical and behavioral traits of newly developed methylphenidate analogs.
- Davies HM, Hopper DW, Hansen T, Liu Q, Childers SR (April 2004). “Synthesis of Methylphenidate Analogues and Assessment of Their Binding Affinities at Dopamine and Serotonin Transport Sites”. In this research, published in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 1799–802), the authors focus on synthesizing analogues of methylphenidate and evaluating their binding affinities at sites related to dopamine and serotonin transport.
- “Methylphenidate-based NPS: A Review of Usage and Associated Harms.” Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 31 March 2015. This report by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs offers a comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the use and potential harm associated with novel psychoactive substances (NPS) based on methylphenidate.
- “Letter to Mike Penning Regarding Methylphenidate-Based Novel Psychoactive Substances.” Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 25 June 2015. This correspondence provides insights from the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs addressed to Mike Penning, dated June 25, 2015, and discusses novel psychoactive substances based on methylphenidate.
- “Ministerial Response to the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs on Two New Methylphenidate-Based Substances.” Home Office, 25 June 2015. This document outlines the official response from the Home Office to the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs regarding two newly identified methylphenidate-based substances.
- Federal Register, “Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ethylphenidate in Schedule I,” published on September 22, 2023. This federal register document highlights the proposed rule by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to categorize Ethylphenidate as a Schedule I substance and its potential implications. Public commentary on this proposal is open until November 21, 2023.