The online market for research chemicals has grown in popularity in recent years, with many sellers offering various substances, including 1P-LSD, a designer drug. While the accessibility of such compounds for scientific purposes is a positive development, it also raises concerns about the reliability and ethics of these vendors.
One of the primary issues with 1P-LSD sellers is the lack of regulation and oversight. Many vendors operate in a legal gray area, exploiting loopholes in existing drug laws to market their products as “research chemicals.” This labeling allows them to evade strict regulations and sell these substances openly. However, this also means buyers often lack the safeguards and quality control measures in place for legitimate scientific research.
Another concern is the safety of these compounds when purchased online. The convenience of online shopping often entices buyers, but the quality and purity of these research chemicals are not guaranteed. There have been numerous reports of mislabeled or contaminated products, potentially putting researchers at risk and compromising the integrity of their experiments.
Furthermore, the motivations behind these online vendors must be scrutinized. While some may genuinely aim to support scientific research, others may prioritize profit over safety. The aggressive marketing of these substances for sale, often with flashy packaging and promotional tactics, raises questions about their true intentions.
- 1 Summary
- 2 History and culture
- 3 Chemistry
- 4 Pharmacology
- 5 Subjective effects
- 6 Toxicity
- 7 Legal status
- 8 FAQ
- 8.1 1. What is 1P-LSD?
- 8.2 2. How does 1P-LSD work?
- 8.3 3. Is 1P-LSD legal?
- 8.4 4. How is 1P-LSD typically consumed?
- 8.5 5. What are the effects of 1P-LSD?
- 8.6 6. How long does a 1P-LSD trip last?
- 8.7 7. Is 1P-LSD safe to use?
- 8.8 8. Are there any risks or side effects associated with 1P-LSD?
- 8.9 9. Can 1P-LSD be addictive?
- 8.10 10. Can 1P-LSD be detected in drug tests?
- 8.11 11. Can 1P-LSD be used for medical purposes?
- 8.12 12. Is there a recommended safe dosage for 1P-LSD?
- 8.13 13. Is it safe to combine 1P-LSD with other substances?
- 8.14 14. How can I reduce the risks associated with 1P-LSD use?
- 9 15. Where can I obtain 1P-LSD?
- 10 References
1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly known as 1P-LSD, belongs to the lysergamide class of novel psychedelic substances. Structurally akin to LSD and sharing commonalities with other lysergamides such as 1cP-LSD, 1B-LSD, and 1V-LSD, its precise mechanism of action revolves around stimulating serotonin receptors within the brain. However, the exact details remain a mystery.
The emergence of 1P-LSD can be traced back to its online availability as a research chemical or “designer drug” since 2015. Interestingly, its origins and initial synthesis date remain undisclosed, as it lacks any documented presence in research literature before its debut on the online research chemical market in 2015.
1P-LSD was introduced as a legal alternative to LSD, coexisting with other novel lysergamides like ALD-52, ETH-LAD, and AL-LAD. In 2019, it drew the attention of the French laboratory Caulredaitens, becoming one of the compounds under their study.
Reported subjective effects of 1P-LSD encompass geometric visual hallucinations, time distortion, enhanced introspection, conceptual thinking, euphoria, and ego dissolution. Notably, user accounts highlight a striking similarity between the effects of 1P-LSD and LSD, reinforcing the hypothesis that it serves as a prodrug for LSD. This idea gains support from a study demonstrating the conversion of 1P-LSD into LSD in rats, hinting at near-identical effect profiles, potentially differing mainly in absorption rate and duration. Consequently, 1P-LSD has garnered popularity among enthusiasts of novel substances who interchangeably use it with LSD.
However, the knowledge base concerning the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 1P-LSD remains limited. It is assumed to exhibit a toxicity and risk profile similar to LSD, though no formal studies have verified this assumption. Therefore, it is highly advisable to employ harm reduction practices when engaging with this substance to ensure safe usage.
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||379.504 g·mol−1|
History and culture
1P-LSD made its inaugural appearance on the online research chemical market in January 2015. While it likely originated in an academic setting, the identity of the pioneering chemist who first synthesized 1P-LSD remains shrouded in mystery, primarily because this substance doesn’t feature in any academic literature predating its introduction to the research chemical market.
Interestingly, the notion of employing 1-alkylated lysergamide derivatives as a strategic method to circumvent controlled substance regulations, which had outlawed LSD as a precursor, was already contemplated in a DEA report dating back to 1988: “…a decrease in hallucinogenic activity might be considered acceptable to clandestine chemists in the United States when they realize that lysergic acid amide is categorized as a Schedule III substance in the CFR. Consequently, structurally akin substances derived from this compound are exempted from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) amendment. This logically leads to the assumption that lysergic acid N, N-dimethylamine originates from lysergic acid amide rather than LSD. Pursuing this reasoning, one could reasonably infer that 1-alkyl and 1-acyl derivatives of the N, N-dimethyl isomer would similarly elude control under the CsA amendment.”
1P-LSD belongs to the lysergamide family and is a semi-synthetic compound. It closely resembles LSD, earning its name from adding a propionyl group to the nitrogen within LSD’s polycyclic indole structure. This propionyl group comprises a carbonyl chain denoted as CH3CH2CO- linked to an amino group.
Similarly, 1P-LSD shares a structural kinship with ALD-52, which features an acetyl group affixed to the nitrogen instead of the propionyl group in the same position. The composition of 1P-LSD encompasses a polycyclic entity encompassing a bicyclic hexahydro indole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group. An N, N-diethyl carboxamide linkage exists at carbon 8 of the quinoline.
1P-LSD is believed to function as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor due to its structural resemblance to LSD. The psychedelic effects it induces are primarily attributed to its interaction with the 5-HT2A receptors distributed throughout the brain.
Moreover, 1P-LSD probably exhibits binding activity at various monoamine receptors, including those associated with dopamine and norepinephrine. However, it’s important to note that no experimental data can substantiate these assertions.
There is a hypothesis that 1P-LSD might serve as a prodrug for LSD. While 1P-LSD demonstrates only 38% of the potency of LSD in mouse studies, the presence of LSD has been detected using LC-MS when 1P-LSD is incubated in human serum. Ongoing research endeavors aim to compare the affinity and selectivity of LSD and 1P-LSD at 5-HT receptors and determine whether 1P-LSD undergoes hydrolysis to form LSD in vivo. Alternatively, it’s plausible that 1P-LSD possesses intrinsic activity.
Before the publication of the research above, David E. Nichols, a medicinal chemist, and psychedelics researcher, reportedly discussed the potential serotonin receptor binding dynamics of 1P-LSD in private correspondence. He was uncertain whether the N-propionyl group could be cleaved from the indole in vivo. He noted that the compound would not be active as the N-propionyl derivative due to its inability to fit into the 5-HT2A receptor, unlike LSD, which forms a hydrogen bond with serine 5.46 through its indole NH.
A study conducted in 2020 involving two male volunteers discovered that serum levels of 1P-LSD rapidly declined within the first hour after administration, while LSD remained consistently detectable throughout the experiment. This finding further bolsters the prodrug theory. Additionally, the study revealed that LSD exhibited close to 100% bioavailability following the oral ingestion of 1P-LSD.
Anecdotal accounts from numerous users consistently suggest that the subjective effects of 1P-LSD closely mirror those of LSD to the extent that they are nearly indistinguishable. Compared to psychedelics like psilocybin, LSA, and ayahuasca, 1P-LSD is notably more stimulating and characterized by a fast-paced nature concerning its specific physical and cognitive effects.
Please note that the effects listed below are based on anecdotal user reports and the subjective analyses of the Subjective Effect Index (SEI). This research literature relies on open contributions. As such, they should be approached with a healthy degree of skepticism.
Additionally, it’s essential to understand that these effects may not occur consistently or predictably. Higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects, and as doses increase, the likelihood of adverse effects, including addiction, severe injury, or even death, also rises ☠.
- Stimulation: 1P-LSD is generally perceived as highly energetic and stimulating, promoting physical activities such as running, walking, climbing, or dancing.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations: A pronounced “body high” is often experienced, characterized by intense tingling sensations that are location-specific, sharp, fast-moving, and euphoric.
- Physical euphoria: This effect is not as reliably induced as with substances like stimulants or entactogens and can sometimes manifest as extreme physical discomfort without an apparent cause.
- Tactile enhancement: Users consistently report enhanced tactile sensations throughout most 1P-LSD experiences.
- Stamina enhancement: Although milder than traditional stimulants, 1P-LSD can enhance stamina.
- Appetite suppression
- Bodily control enhancement
- Difficulty urinating
- Excessive yawning: Less pronounced than with psilocybin and related compounds.
- Nausea: Occasional, especially at moderate to high doses, typically subsiding after vomiting or fading as the peak sets in.
- Increased blood pressure (citation needed)
- Increased heart rate (citation needed)
- Increased perspiration
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Pupil dilation
- Increased salivation
- Vasoconstriction may cause users to feel cold, particularly in the extremities.
- Seizure: The likelihood is mainly inferred from seizures reported with LSD use, primarily affecting those genetically predisposed and in physically demanding conditions like dehydration, fatigue, undernourishment, or overheating.
- Color enhancement is often reported as brighter but less varied than other psychedelics.
- Pattern recognition enhancement
- Visual acuity enhancement
- Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing, flowing): Detailed yet cartoon-like distortions that are slow, smooth, and fleeting.
- Colour shifting
- Colour tinting
- After images
- Depth perception distortions
- Perspective distortions
- Symmetrical texture repetition
- Scenery slicing
- The visual geometry of 1P-LSD is akin to 2C-B or 2C-I, with intricacy, algorithmic patterns, unstructured organization, brightness, and vibrant colors. It feels synthetic, multicolored, flat, sharp-edged, large, fast, smoothly moving, angular, non-immersive, and consistently intense.
- At higher doses, 1P-LSD tends to be level 8A dominant but can induce level 8B Geometry under specific conditions.
- Hallucinatory States
- 1P-LSD can produce a full range of hallucinatory states, though they are less consistent and reproducible than those induced by other psychedelics like DMT or psilocybin. These states may include transformations, machine scapes (rare), and internal and external hallucinations.
- Analysis enhancement: Consistently manifests and emphasizes introspection.
- Anxiety and paranoia: Less common at low to moderate doses, with reduced likelihood when adhering to set guidelines. However, it can become more likely when combined with cannabis, which should be used cautiously.
- Conceptual thinking
- Creativity enhancement
- Emotion enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Personal bias suppression
- Personal meaning enhancement
- Focus enhancement: Exclusive to low or threshold dosages and feels less forced than with stimulants.
- Immersion enhancement
- Suggestibility enhancement
- Cognitive euphoria: Generally less consistent and pronounced than with substances like psilocybin and MDMA, often resulting from enhancing the user’s current psychological and emotional state and physical euphoria.
- Déjà vu
- Increased libido
- Increased music appreciation
- Increased sense of humor
- Laughter fits: Prominent during the come-up phase, leading to uncontrollable bouts of giggles and laughter, sometimes forming feedback loops with others under the influence.
- Memory suppression
- Ego death
- Thought acceleration
- Thought disorganization
- Thought loops
- Time distortion
- Auditory enhancement
- Auditory distortion
- Auditory hallucinations
- Synaesthesia: Rare and non-reproducible in its entire manifestation, more likely at higher doses and among individuals predisposed to synaesthetic experiences.
- Spirituality enhancement
- Existential self-realization
- Unity and interconnectedness
- Alcohol can reduce anxiety and tension but may lead to dehydration, nausea, and physical fatigue. Caution is advised.
- Benzodiazepines: Highly effective at diminishing 1P-LSD’s effects through general brain activity suppression.
- Cannabis: Strongly intensifies sensory and cognitive effects; extreme caution is necessary to avoid anxiety, confusion, and psychosis.
- Dissociatives: Enhance cognitive, visual, and general hallucinatory effects but may also increase confusion, delusions, and psychosis.
- MDMA: Synergistic with 1P-LSD, mutually enhancing physical, cognitive, and visual effects. Caution is essential, starting with lower doses than usual.
- Psychedelics: Combining with other psychedelics intensifies physical, cognitive, visual, auditory, and transpersonal effects. Begin with lower dosages than for each substance individually.
- Stimulants: Combining with psychedelics may result in anxiety, panic attacks, thought loops, and paranoia. Caution is advised.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 1P-LSD use remain largely unexplored. This limited understanding arises because 1P-LSD is classified as a research chemical with minimal historical human use data.
Anecdotal reports suggest that trying 1P-LSD by itself, at low to moderate doses, and using it sparingly appears to carry no immediate adverse health effects. Nevertheless, it’s essential to emphasize the need for independent research to ensure the safety of any substance, especially when combined with other substances.
Given its structural similarity to LSD, 1P-LSD is assumed to be well-tolerated physiologically and exhibits an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. There have been relatively few reports of physical side effects following acute 1P-LSD exposure.
However, like LSD and other psychedelics, 1P-LSD might act as a trigger for individuals with underlying mental disorders. Those with a personal or family history of mental illness are generally advised against using this substance, particularly without medical supervision.
The responsible use of harm reduction practices is strongly recommended for anyone considering using 1P-LSD.
1P-LSD does not have a known toxic dose, but higher doses increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions, such as anxiety, delusions, panic attacks, and, more rarely, seizures. Medical attention is typically unnecessary except in cases of severe psychotic episodes or the consumption of counterfeit substances (e.g., 25i-NBOMe or DOB). The administration of benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help alleviate acute adverse cognitive effects resulting from 1P-LSD use.
Dependence and Abuse Potential
Although no formal studies have been conducted, it is generally assumed that, like LSD, 1P-LSD is non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. There are no reports in the literature of successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSD, indicating a lack of the necessary pharmacology to initiate or maintain dependence. Likewise, virtually no withdrawal syndrome is associated with chronic LSD use, and it is presumed that 1P-LSD shares these characteristics.
Tolerance to the effects of 1P-LSD develops almost immediately upon ingestion. It takes approximately 5-7 days for tolerance to halve and 14 days to return to baseline, assuming no further consumption. Importantly, 1P-LSD leads to cross-tolerance with all other psychedelics, meaning they will have a reduced effect following 1P-LSD use.
Caution must be exercised when combining psychoactive substances, as certain combinations can be dangerous or even life-threatening. Conducting independent research to ensure the safety of any such combinations is essential. The following substances are listed with the assumption that 1P-LSD may share a similar dangerous interaction profile with LSD:
- Lithium: Combining lithium with psychedelics increases the risk of psychosis and seizures, particularly in individuals with bipolar disorder. This combination is strongly discouraged.
- Cannabis: Cannabis can unexpectedly intensify and unpredictably interact with 1P-LSD effects, potentially leading to adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start with a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take extended breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
- Stimulants: Substances like amphetamine, cocaine, or methylphenidate, which affect various brain regions and dopaminergic function, can elevate the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops when combined with 1P-LSD. This interaction may also increase the likelihood of mania and psychosis.
- Tramadol: Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold, and psychedelics like 1P-LSD may potentially trigger seizures in susceptible individuals when combined. Caution is advised in such cases.
1P-LSD does not fall under the scheduling of the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Its legal status varies across countries, creating a legal gray area where it may not be explicitly illegal but can still lead to charges for possession under specific circumstances, such as analog laws and intent to sell or consume.
Here is the legal status of 1P-LSD in various countries:
- Austria: 1P-LSD is not technically illegal, but it may be considered an analog of LSD under the Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich (NPSG), making it illegal for supply or human consumption.
- Canada: 1P-LSD is not mentioned in the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, so it is not technically illegal.
- Czech Republic: 1P-LSD is a controlled substance as of January 1, 2014.
- Denmark: Since August 25, 2015, 1P-LSD has explicitly been listed as an illegal substance.
- Estonia: 1P-LSD is a Schedule I controlled substance as of June 1, 2017.
- Finland: 1P-LSD is classified as a controlled substance as of November 15, 2018.
- Germany: 1P-LSD falls under the New Psychoactive Substances Act (NpSG) as of July 18, 2019. Production, import for marketing, administration to others, and trading are punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.
- Japan: 1P-LSD is considered a controlled substance.
- Latvia: Although not officially scheduled, 1P-LSD is controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.
- Lithuania: 1P-LSD is illegal in Lithuania and has been specifically listed as an illegal substance since September 21, 2015.
- Norway: 1P-LSD is a controlled substance as of February 14, 2013.
- Romania: 1P-LSD is considered a controlled substance.
- Singapore: 1P-LSD is classified as a Class A controlled substance.
- Sweden: Following its sale as a designer drug, 1P-LSD was made illegal in Sweden on January 26, 2016.
- Switzerland: 1P-LSD is considered a controlled substance listed explicitly under Verzeichnis E. It became illegal as of December 2015.
- Turkey: 1P-LSD is illegal in Turkey as of February 2016.
- United Kingdom: 1P-LSD is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, effective May 26, 2016.
- United States: 1P-LSD is unscheduled in the United States of America. However, as it can be considered a prodrug for LSD, its possession and sale may be prosecutable under the Federal Analogue Act.
1. What is 1P-LSD?
- 1P-LSD, or 1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide, is a novel psychedelic compound from the lysergamide family. It is structurally related to LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) and shares similar effects.
2. How does 1P-LSD work?
- 1P-LSD is believed to produce its effects by stimulating serotonin receptors in the brain, primarily the 5-HT2A receptor. This mechanism is thought to be responsible for its psychedelic effects.
3. Is 1P-LSD legal?
- The legal status of 1P-LSD varies by country. In some places, it is unscheduled and not explicitly illegal; in others, it is controlled or prohibited. Always check your local laws and regulations before obtaining or using 1P-LSD.
4. How is 1P-LSD typically consumed?
- 1P-LSD is commonly consumed orally, usually as blotter paper or liquid. The dosages vary, so it’s essential to measure and consume it carefully.
5. What are the effects of 1P-LSD?
- The effects of 1P-LSD are similar to those of LSD and may include visual hallucinations, altered perception of time, enhanced introspection, conceptual thinking, euphoria, and ego loss. Individual experiences can vary.
6. How long does a 1P-LSD trip last?
- The duration of a 1P-LSD trip can range from 6 to 12 hours, with the peak effects occurring around 3 to 5 hours after ingestion. The length of the trip may depend on the dosage and individual factors.
7. Is 1P-LSD safe to use?
- The safety of 1P-LSD has not been extensively studied, and it may pose risks, especially when used irresponsibly or in high doses. Like all psychedelics, it can potentially trigger adverse psychological reactions or exacerbate underlying mental health issues.
8. Are there any risks or side effects associated with 1P-LSD?
- Some potential risks and side effects of 1P-LSD use may include anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, thought loops, and, in rare cases, seizures. Physical side effects include increased heart rate, sweating, and difficulty urinating.
9. Can 1P-LSD be addictive?
- There is limited evidence to suggest that 1P-LSD is addictive or has a high potential for abuse. However, tolerance can develop quickly, meaning repeated use may lead to diminished effects.
10. Can 1P-LSD be detected in drug tests?
- Standard drug tests typically do not screen for 1P-LSD, a relatively new compound. However, specialized tests may be able to detect it.
11. Can 1P-LSD be used for medical purposes?
- There is no approved medical use for 1P-LSD. It is primarily used recreationally or for research purposes.
12. Is there a recommended safe dosage for 1P-LSD?
- Due to the limited research, there is no universally accepted safe dosage. Users should start with a low dose and exercise caution to minimize potential risks.
13. Is it safe to combine 1P-LSD with other substances?
- Combining 1P-LSD with other substances, including alcohol, cannabis, or other drugs, can be unpredictable and may increase the risk of adverse reactions. It’s generally advised to use caution and avoid polydrug use.
14. How can I reduce the risks associated with 1P-LSD use?
- To reduce risks, follow harm reduction practices: start with a low dose, use in a safe and comfortable environment, have a trusted sober sitter present, and avoid using if you have a personal or family history of mental health issues.
15. Where can I obtain 1P-LSD?
- The availability of 1P-LSD varies by region. Online research chemical vendors often sell it, but the legality of purchase and possession varies by country and jurisdiction. Always research local laws and regulations before attempting to obtain them.
Please note that this information is for educational purposes only and should not be considered medical or legal advice. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional and understand your local laws before using 1P-LSD or any other substances.
- Google Trends. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Wagmann, Lea; Richter, Lilian H. J.; Kehl, Tobias; Wack, Franziska; Pettersson Bergstrand, Madeleine; Brandt, Simon D.; Stratford, Alexander; Maurer, Hans H.; Meyer, Markus R. (2019). “In vitro metabolic fate of nine LSD-based new psychoactive substances and their analytical detectability in different urinary screening procedures.” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 411 (19): 4751–4763. doi:10.1007/s00216-018-1558-9. ISSN 1618-2642.
- Brandt, S. D.; Kavanagh, P. V.; Westphal, F.; Stratford, A.; Elliott, S. P.; Hoang, K.; Wallach, J.; Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). “Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioral characterization of 1‐propionyl‐d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (1P‐LSD)”. Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (9): 891–902. doi:10.1002/dta.1884. ISSN 1942-7603.
- Cooper, Donald A. (1988). “Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse”. Proceedings of the international symposium on the forensic aspects of controlled substances. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-93211-509-6.
- “Kman1898” (January 13, 2015). “The Big & Dandy 1P-LSD Thread, Volume 1”. Bluelight.org. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Grumann, C.; Henkel, K; Brandt, S. D.; Stratford, A.; Passie, T.; Auwärter, V. (May 15, 2020). “Pharmacokinetics and subjective effects of 1P-LSD in humans after oral and intravenous administration”. Drug Testing and Analysis: 1–10. doi:10.1002/dta.2821. eISSN 1942-7611. ISSN 1942-7603. OCLC 231680670. PMID 32415750.
- Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (2004). “Potentiation of (DL)‐3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptor partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939”. Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. doi:10.1002/nrc.20023. ISSN 1520-6769.
- Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan; Nash, J. Frank (1994). “Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists”. European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6. ISSN 0014-2999.
- Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalho, F. (2007). “Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons”. Neurotoxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005. ISSN 0161-813X. PMID 17572501.
- Nichols, David E. (2004). “Hallucinogens”. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–181. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. ISSN 0163-7258.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). “Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol.” Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- “Synthetische Drogen: Neues Gesetz soll “Legal Highs” bekämpfen” [Synthetic drugs: New law is to combat legal highs] (in German). Der Standard. September 28, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “Entwurf: Bundesgesetz, mit dem ein Bundesgesetz über den Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren im Zusammenhang mit Neuen Psychoaktiven Substanzen (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz, NPSG) erlassen und das Suchtmittelgesetz (SMG) geändert wird” (PDF) (in German). Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “Nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb. Nařízení vlády o seznamech návykových látek” (in Czech). Zákony pro lidi. December 18, 2013.
- “Bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer – ni nye stoffer tilføjet” (in Danish). Danish Medicines Ageny. August 31, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “Muudatus narkootiliste ja psühhotroopsete ainete I nimekirjas” (in Estonian). State Agency of Medicines. June 13, 2017.
- “Valtioneuvoston asetus kuluttajamarkkinoilta kielletyistä psykoaktiivisista aineista annetun valtioneuvoston asetuksen liitteen muuttamisesta” [Government decree amending the annex to the government decree on psychoactive substances prohibited on the consumer market] (in Finnish). Finlex. October 25, 2018. 840/2018.
- “Anlage NpSG” (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- “Verordnung zur Änderung der Anlage des Neue-psychoaktive-Stoffe-Gesetzes und von Anlagen des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes” (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2019 Teil I Nr. 27 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. July 17, 2019. pp. 1083–1094. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “§ 4 NpSG” (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- “指定薬物一覧” (PDF) (in Japanese). 厚生労働省 [Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare].
- “Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem” (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “LR SAM Įsakymas Dėl Narkotinių ir psichotropinių medžiagų sąrašų patvirtinimo” (in Lithuanian). Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “31 Forskrift om narkotika (narkotikaforskriften)” (in Norwegian). Lovdata.
- “Legea 194/2011 privind combaterea operatiunilor cu produse susceptibile de a avea efecte psihoactive, altele decat cele prevazute de acte normative in vigoare, republicata 2014”. Monitorul Oficial, Partea I. February 26, 2014.
- “Misuse of Drugs Act: (CHAPTER 185)”. sso.agc.gov.sg. March 31, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
- “31 nya substanser klassas som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara” (in Swedish). Folkhälsomyndigheten [Public Health Agency of Sweden]. January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien” (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “Karar Sayısı : 2016/8548” (PDF) (in Turkish). Resmi Gazete. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- “Psychoactive Substances Act 2016”. UK Government. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- “Introduction to the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Act”. Erowid. January 2001. Retrieved January 1, 2020.