When purchasing research chemicals online, the market is flooded with sellers offering various substances, including the controversial 5F-AKB48. While there may be legitimate reasons for researchers to seek out such compounds, the online marketplace for these substances is fraught with risks and ethical concerns.
One of the primary issues surrounding 5F-AKB48 research chemical sellers is the need for more regulation and oversight. Many of these vendors operate in a legal gray area, exploiting loopholes in the law to sell what are essentially designer drugs. This raises serious questions about the purity and safety of the substances they offer for sale. Without proper quality control and testing, researchers cannot guarantee the composition and potency of the chemicals they buy.
Furthermore, the online marketplace for research chemicals is rife with unscrupulous sellers prioritizing profits over their customers’ well-being. Some vendors may misrepresent the effects and potential dangers of 5F-AKB48, downplaying the risks associated with its use. This not only puts researchers at risk but also contributes to the overall need for more understanding regarding the safety profile of these compounds.
Additionally, the marketing tactics employed by some sellers are concerning. They often use flashy websites and marketing strategies to attract potential buyers, making it difficult for researchers to discern reputable vendors from less trustworthy ones. This can lead to researchers inadvertently supporting sellers who prioritize profit over scientific integrity.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 Legal status
- 7 FAQ
- 7.1 1. What is 5F-AKB48?
- 7.2 2. Is 5F-AKB48 safe for recreational use?
- 7.3 3. What are the potential effects of 5F-AKB48?
- 7.4 4. Is 5F-AKB48 legal to purchase or possess?
- 7.5 5. Are there any known health risks associated with 5F-AKB48?
- 7.6 6. Can 5F-AKB48 be used for medical purposes?
- 7.7 7. What precautions should be taken if using 5F-AKB48 for research purposes?
- 7.8 8. Is 5F-AKB48 addictive?
- 7.9 9. Can 5F-AKB48 be detected in drug tests?
- 8 References
5F-AKB48, also called 5F-APINACA and AKB-48F, belongs to the synthetic cannabinoid category known as indazole carboxamides. It functions as a potent agonist targeting both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.
Scientific investigations have delved into the properties of 5F-AKB48. Its origins trace back to South Korea, and it is procurable as a research chemical in a legal gray area through online vendors.
Users have reported subjective effects somewhat akin to those of cannabis, characterized by a brief duration and a heightened focus on intense physical sensations.
Cannabinoids are typically smoked or vaporized to achieve a rapid onset of effects and quick dissipation. Notably, 5F-AKB48 can be taken orally when dissolved in lipids, significantly extending its duration. Like other cannabinoids, it exhibits insolubility in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.
Crucially, unlike natural cannabis, the prolonged misuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been linked to numerous severe injuries, fatalities, dangerous side effects, and general toxicity. Consequently, the extended and excessive consumption of this substance is strongly discouraged.
5F-AKB48, scientifically known as N-(adamantane-1-yl)-1-(5-fluorophenyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, falls within the synthetic indazole carboxamide category, characterized by the presence of a modified indazole group. Specifically, this indazole component features substitutions at two key positions.
At R1, there is a fluorophenyl chain substitution, a feature it shares with 5F-PB-22. Moreover, at R3 of the indazole structure, there exists a carboxamide group. Notably, this carboxamide group is N-substituted at its terminal amine group with an adamantane group. The adamantane group comprises four fused cyclohexane rings, creating a distinct structural arrangement known as a diamondoid.
5F-AKB48 represents an analog of STS-135, where the core indole structure has been replaced with an indazole base.
While no formal studies have been conducted on this substance, examining its structure suggests that 5F-AKB48 likely exhibits a binding profile akin to other cannabinoids and shares several in vivo properties with Δ9-THC. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these interactions and their contribution to the characteristic cannabinoid high remain an ongoing mystery.
Disclaimer: The effects outlined below are based on anecdotal user reports and the personal assessments of contributors to the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on open research literature. Therefore, it is advisable to approach these effects with a reasonable degree of skepticism.
It is important to note that these effects may sometimes manifest differently or consistently. However, higher doses are more likely to encompass the full range of products. Conversely, adverse effects become increasingly probable with higher doses and may include the risk of addiction, severe harm, or even fatality ☠.
- Spontaneous physical sensations: The “body high” associated with 5F-AKB48 is characterized by a sharp, somewhat uncomfortable, pervasive, and electrifying tingling sensation that spreads throughout the body shortly after consumption. It remains consistently present, intensifying as the onset progresses and reaching its peak at the height of the experience before rapidly fading.
- Motor control loss: This substance tends to induce a partial to moderate suppression of motor control, with the level of impairment increasing proportionally with the dose. However, it only sometimes leads to a complete inability to walk or perform basic movements.
- Appetite enhancement: Like many other cannabinoids, 5F-AKB48 can trigger an increase in appetite, often colloquially referred to as “the munchies” in American and UK culture. Clinical studies and survey data suggest that cannabis enhances food enjoyment and interest in eating, possibly due to the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate food intake.
- Pain relief: Cannabinoids, including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists like 5F-AKB48, have been clinically shown to relieve pain by activating cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.
- Perception of bodily lightness
- Changes in gravity
- Dehydration: Often referred to colloquially as “cotton mouth” in American and UK culture.
- Anxiety: This compound is more prone to inducing fear than other cannabinoids, making it advisable for individuals susceptible to pressure to avoid its use.
- Emotion enhancement
- Thought connectivity
- Thought deceleration
- Conceptual thinking
- Analysis suppression
- Dream suppression
- Psychosis: Prolonged use of synthetic cannabinoids may increase the risk of psychosis, especially in vulnerable individuals with predisposing factors for psychotic illnesses, such as a personal or family history of schizophrenia.
- Increased music appreciation
The toxicity and long-term health implications of recreational 5F-AKB48 use have not been scientifically investigated, and the precise toxic dose remains unknown. This knowledge gap is primarily due to humans’ limited historical use of 5F-AKB48. Anecdotal reports from individuals within the community who have experimented with 5F-AKB48 suggest that at low to moderate doses and when used sparingly, there appear to be no significant adverse health effects associated with the substance. However, it is essential to emphasize that no guarantees can be made regarding its safety.
Informal experiments have indicated that overdose can lead to physical discomfort, including symptoms such as heart palpitations, vertigo, and sedation, even at doses significantly below dangerous levels. This often results in heightened anxiety or sleepiness for the user.
It is commonly advised that individuals with severe pre-existing mental health conditions should avoid using such substances due to their potential to intensify their current emotional and mental state. Similar to THC, prolonged use of synthetic cannabinoids like 5F-AKB48 may increase the risk of mental illness and psychosis, especially in individuals with predisposing factors like a history of schizophrenia.
Given that synthetic cannabinoids are active at very low doses (often below 5mg), it is crucial to exercise caution when dosing to prevent a negative experience.
Harm reduction practices are strongly recommended when using this drug to mitigate potential risks.
Tolerance and Addiction Potential
As with other synthetic cannabinoids, chronic use of 5F-AKB48 can lead to moderate addiction potential and a high likelihood of abuse. Some users may develop psychological dependence, and if addiction takes hold, individuals may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation.
Tolerance to many of 5F-AKB48’s effects typically develops with repeated and prolonged use, necessitating increasingly larger doses to achieve the desired results. Tolerance reduction generally takes 3 to 7 days to reach half the original tolerance level and 1 to 2 weeks to return to baseline, assuming no further consumption. It’s worth noting that 5F-AKB48 induces cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that its use reduces the effectiveness of other cannabinoids.
Caution is paramount when combining psychoactive substances, as seemingly safe substances can become perilous when mixed with others. Below is a list of known dangerous interactions, although it may not encompass all possible risks. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure the safety of combining two or more substances. Some of these interactions have been sourced from TripSit:
- Amphetamines: Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops, potentially leading to negative experiences.
- Cocaine: Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops, potentially leading to negative experiences.
Brazil: Possession, production, and sale are illegal, as listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
China: As of October 2015, 5F-APINACA is a controlled substance in China.
Czech Republic: 5F-APINACA is banned in the Czech Republic.
Germany: 5F-APINACA is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) as of July 17, 2013. Manufacturing, possessing, importing, exporting, buying, selling, procuring, or dispensing it without a license is illegal.
Latvia: 5F-AKB48 is a Schedule I drug.
Switzerland: 5F-AKB48 is a controlled substance named explicitly under Verzeichnis D.
United Kingdom: 5F-AKB48 is a Class B controlled substance under the third-generation synthetic cannabinoids generic definition, which came into effect on December 14, 2016, and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.
United States: 5F-AKB48 is a Schedule I substance.
Italy: 5F-AKB48 is a Schedule I controlled substance.
1. What is 5F-AKB48?
5F-AKB48, also known as 5F-APINACA, is a synthetic cannabinoid compound that belongs to the indazole carboxamide class. It is chemically related to cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant and is used for research.
2. Is 5F-AKB48 safe for recreational use?
No, 5F-AKB48 is not safe for recreational use. It has not undergone comprehensive safety testing, and its effects on the human body must be better understood. Additionally, the legality 5F-AKB48 varies by country, and its use can lead to legal consequences.
3. What are the potential effects of 5F-AKB48?
The effects 5F-AKB48 can vary widely and may include altered perception, relaxation, anxiety, paranoia, and physical sensations. However, these effects can be unpredictable and may differ from person to person.
4. Is 5F-AKB48 legal to purchase or possess?
The legality of 5F-AKB48 varies by country and jurisdiction. In many places, it is classified as a controlled substance, making its purchase, possession, and use illegal. Always check the specific laws in your area to understand the legal status 5F-AKB48.
5. Are there any known health risks associated with 5F-AKB48?
The long-term health effects of 5F-AKB48 are largely unknown, as it has not been extensively studied. However, anecdotal reports and the impact of similar synthetic cannabinoids suggest that there may be risks, including addiction, mental health issues, and physical discomfort.
6. Can 5F-AKB48 be used for medical purposes?
No, 5F-AKB48 is not approved for medical use and should not be used as a medication. Clinical trials have not established its safety and efficacy for medical purposes.
7. What precautions should be taken if using 5F-AKB48 for research purposes?
If using 5F-AKB48 for research, strict safety protocols should be followed. Researchers should have appropriate training and access to a controlled environment. Handling the substance with care and adhering to all legal regulations and safety guidelines is crucial.
8. Is 5F-AKB48 addictive?
Like other synthetic cannabinoids, 5F-AKB48 has the potential to be moderately addictive. Users may develop psychological dependence and abrupt cessation of use can lead to withdrawal symptoms.
9. Can 5F-AKB48 be detected in drug tests?
5F-AKB48 can be detected in standard drug tests that screen for synthetic cannabinoids. It is important to note that its use can lead to positive drug test results, which can have legal and employment consequences.
- AKB48 (APINACA) and 5F-AKB48 (5F-APINACA) are synthetic cannabinoids with documented research and regulatory information available.
- For detailed chemical data, you can refer to the document at http://deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/spice/akb48.pdf.
- In a study conducted by Jang et al. (1 July 2015), they simultaneously quantified 37 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This research is published in “Forensic Toxicology,” Volume 33 (2), pages 221–234, with the DOI: 10.1007/s11419-015-0265-x.
- Karinen et al. (January 2015) analyzed blood samples from six impaired drivers, focusing on the concentrations of APINACA, 5F-APINACA, UR-144, and its degradant product. Their findings are available in “Forensic Science International,” Volume 246, pages 98–103, DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.11.012.
- Holm et al. (March 2015) identified metabolites of 5F-AKB-48 in human urine and liver microsomal preparations using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. This work is published in “Drug Testing and Analysis,” Volume 7 (3), pages 199–206, DOI: 10.1002/dta.1663.
- Wohlfarth et al. (May 2015) conducted metabolite profiling for AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA. Their research can be found in “The AAPS Journal,” Volume 17 (3), pages 660–677, DOI: 10.1208/s12248-015-9721-0.
- Chung et al. (1 January 2014) documented synthetic cannabinoids abused in South Korea and provided drug identifications from 2009 to June 2013. The study was published in “Forensic Toxicology,” Volume 32 (1), pages 82–88, DOI: 10.1007/s11419-013-0213-6.
- “Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents” (1986), edited by Mechoulam R., discusses cannabinoids’ therapeutic potential and can be referenced through CRC Press with ISBN 9780849357725.
- “How Marijuana Works” (2001) explores the mechanisms of marijuana’s effects.
- Martin-Sánchez et al. (November 2009) conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain. Their findings are in “Pain Medicine,” Volume 10 (8), pages 1353–1368, DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x.
- Lynch and Campbell (November 2011) systematically reviewed randomized trials on cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer pain. Their research is available in the “British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology,” Volume 72 (5), pages 735–744, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x.
- Arseneault et al. (February 2004) examined the evidence regarding the causal association between cannabis and psychosis. The study can be found in “The British Journal of Psychiatry,” Volume 184 (2), pages 110–117, DOI: 10.1192/bjp.184.2.110.
- Every-Palmer (September 2011) conducted an explorative study on synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and psychosis. This research is published in “Drug and Alcohol Dependence,” Volume 117 (2–3), pages 152–157, DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.012.
- Schneir et al. (1 March 2011) discussed synthetic cannabinoid intoxication in “The Journal of Emergency Medicine,” Volume 40 (3), pages 296–299, DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.10.014.
- Vearrier and Osterhoudt (June 2010) presented a case of a teenager with agitation related to synthetic cannabinoids in “Pediatric Emergency Care,” Volume 26 (6), pages 462–465, DOI: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181e4f416.
- Regulatory documents from various countries, such as Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, provide information on the legal status of synthetic cannabinoids.
- “关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知” (in Chinese) can be accessed at http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html.
- “Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek” (in Czech) is available at http://www.mzcr.cz/Admin/_upload/files/3/Nov%C3%A9%20PL.pdf.
- “Anlage II BtMG” (in German) can be referenced at the Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz website.
- “Siebenundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften” (in German) is available as a PDF document from Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2013 Teil I Nr. 37.
- “§ 29 BtMG” (in German) can be found on the Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz website.
- Information about controlled substances in Latvia can be found in “Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem.”
- “Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien” (in German) is available through the Bundeskanzlei website.
- The “Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2016” pertains to the legal classification of synthetic cannabinoids in the UK.
- “2016 – Notice of Intent: Temporary Placement of Six Synthetic Cannabinoids (5F-ADB, 5F-AMB, 5F-APINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, MDMB-CHMICA and MDMB-FUBINACA) Into Schedule I” discusses regulatory actions related to these substances.
- “Tabella 1” (in Italian) can be found in a PDF document from the Ministero della Salute, providing information on controlled substances in Italy.