JWH-018, a synthetic cannabinoid, has gained notoriety as a popular research chemical. With its proliferation, many online sellers have emerged, offering this designer drug for sale. However, the landscape of JWH-018 research chemical vendors warrants a critical review, given the potential risks of purchasing and using such substances.
First and foremost, the online sale of JWH-018 raises significant concerns about the legitimacy and safety of these products. Many sellers operate in a legal grey area, exploiting regulatory loopholes to distribute this potent compound as a “research chemical.” This labelling, often flimsily veiled, allows them to bypass stringent drug laws, posing a grave risk to consumers.
The absence of quality control and standardized testing is another alarming aspect of these sellers. Research chemicals must have the rigorous testing and purity standards required for pharmaceutical drugs, leaving consumers in the dark about the actual composition and dosage of the product they purchase. This lack of transparency can lead to dangerous consequences, as users may inadvertently consume a substance with unpredictable effects.
Furthermore, the online nature of these transactions increases the potential for fraudulent activity. Unscrupulous vendors may exploit unsuspecting buyers, selling adulterated or misrepresented products. The risk of scams and fraud is a constant concern in this shadowy market.
In addition to these dangers, the long-term health effects of JWH-018 remain largely unknown. Research chemicals like JWH-018 have not undergone the rigorous testing and clinical trials required of pharmaceuticals, exposing users to unforeseen health risks.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 Legal status
- 7 FAQ
- 7.1 1. What is JWH-018?
- 7.2 2. How is JWH-018 typically used?
- 7.3 3. What are the effects of JWH-018?
- 7.4 4. Is JWH-018 legal?
- 7.5 5. Are there any known health risks associated with JWH-018 use?
- 7.6 6. Can JWH-018 be detected in drug tests?
- 7.7 7. What precautions should I take if I choose to use JWH-018?
- 7.8 8. Is JWH-018 addictive?
- 7.9 9. Can JWH-018 interact with other medications or substances?
- 7.10 10. Is there any safe use of JWH-018?
- 8 References
1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthyl)indole, also known as AM-678 and JWH-018, represents a full agonist synthetic cannabinoid initially synthesized by the accomplished organic chemist John W. Huffman. Its prominence surged in late 2008 when German chemists identified it as a constituent within the widely distributed synthetic cannabis blend Spice, available in numerous countries globally since 2002.
Typically, cannabinoids are consumed through smoking or vaporization to attain swift onset effects with a brief duration. However, when JWH-018 is dissolved in a lipid, it manifests oral activity, extending its products substantially. Like other cannabinoids, it exhibits poor solubility in water but readily dissolves in ethanol and lipids.
It is imperative to underline that, in stark contrast to natural cannabis, the chronic misuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been linked to multiple fatalities and a heightened risk of adverse effects and general toxicity. Consequently, employing this substance over prolonged periods or in excessive quantities is vehemently discouraged. Such a cautionary stance is vital to mitigate potential harm and promote responsible use in the interest of public health and safety.
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID10175117|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||341.454 g·mol−1|
JWH-018, also known as Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone, belongs to the family of synthetic cannabinoids characterized by a modified indole structure. This indole nucleus is a common feature shared with other cannabinoid compounds, including PB-22, 5F-PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. In the case of JWH-018, there is a pentyl chain substitution at R1. Furthermore, the indole core features a carbonyl group at R3, covalently linked to a naphthalene moiety. Naphthalene is a fused, bicyclic structure comprised of two benzene rings. The presence of this carbonyl bridge classifies JWH-018 as a ketone compound. It’s worth noting that JWH-018 is an analogue of THJ-018, wherein the core indazole structure is replaced with an indole base.
JWH-018 acts as a complete agonist for the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, displaying a documented binding affinity of approximately 9.00 ± 5.00 nM at CB1 and 2.94 ± 2.65 nM at CB2. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these interactions and their contribution to the overall experience of a cannabinoid high remain unclear and elusive.
Disclaimer: The effects detailed below are sourced from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), which relies on anecdotal user reports and the personal assessments of PsychonautWiki contributors. Consequently, they should be approached with a critical mindset.
Understanding that these effects may not manifest predictably or consistently is crucial, though higher doses tend to elicit a broader range of products. Furthermore, as doses escalate, the likelihood of adverse outcomes, including addiction, severe harm, or even fatality ☠, increases significantly.
- Spontaneous Physical Sensations: JWH-018 produces a “body high” characterized by a warm, gentle, and often widespread tingling sensation that envelops the entire body. This sensation emerges swiftly upon ingestion, reaching its peak and rapidly dissipating. Some users describe it as synthetic and less pleasant or encompassing compared to the body high from natural cannabis. Others find it slightly anxiety-inducing or uncomfortable.
- Sedation: Generally, JWH-018 has a sedating effect on the user’s energy levels, promoting relaxation and, at higher doses, inducing sleepiness. Its sedative potency is akin to that of 5F-PB-22 and is more pronounced than THC, JWH-073, THJ-018, AM-2201, or 5F-UR-144 but less than 5F-AKB48.
- Motor Control Loss: JWH-018 suppresses motor control to a partial to moderate degree, intensifying with higher doses. However, it rarely leads to complete immobility. This effect is typically more pronounced than with natural cannabis. Reports of high doses describe an alarming sensation of losing control over one’s body, akin to catatonia with convulsions.
- Convulsions: Moderate to high doses of JWH-018 may lead to generalized, sometimes painful spasms in the body or limbs. These should not be confused with seizures, which are much more severe.
- Seizures: Seizures associated with JWH-018 usually occur only at high doses.
- Appetite Enhancement: JWH-018, like many other cannabinoids, stimulates appetite, commonly known as “the munchies” in American and UK culture. This effect is attributed to the activation of cannabinoid receptors responsible for regulating food intake in the hypothalamus.
- Dehydration: “Cottonmouth,” a colloquial term, describes the sensation of dehydration associated with JWH-018. In overdose situations, this can not only be uncomfortable but also painful.
- Vasodilation: Cannabinoids, including JWH-018, reduce blood pressure by dilating blood vessels and increasing blood flow throughout the body. This can lead to arterial expansion in the eyes and, in response, a compensatory increase in heart rate.
- Increased Heart Rate: JWH-018 induces tachycardia due to vasodilation, ranging from mild to severe.
- Pain Relief: Cannabinoids, through the activation of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, have been shown to provide pain relief, an effect also observed with synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.
- Perception of Bodily Heaviness or Lightness
- Changes in Felt Gravity: JWH-018, similar to other cannabinoids, can induce sensations of vertigo, with the environment appearing to spin or oscillate. At moderate doses, it may trigger the feeling of falling, which can be intense, anxiety-inducing, and highly uncomfortable. The likelihood of this diminishes with increased tolerance.
- Colour Enhancement
- Acuity Suppression
- Geometry: JWH-018 can produce closed-eye visuals at moderate doses, evolving into visual distortions such as ripples in the visual field with continuous use. In individuals who also use psychedelics regularly, it may consistently induce a visual style that seems to amalgamate all previously experienced psychedelics. These visual effects are typically mild, delicate, small, and zoomed out but brighter and more distinct than the geometry associated with natural cannabis.
- Emotion Enhancement: Cannabinoids, including JWH-018, enhance existing emotions in a dose-dependent manner. Depending on the user’s mental state, this can lead to euphoria, intense laughter, heightened engagement in tasks, or, conversely, anxiety and paranoia.
- Euphoria: Euphoria is notably prominent compared to THJ-018, AM-2201, and 5F-UR-144, though less intense than with JWH-073.
- Thought Connectivity: JWH-018 can facilitate fluid, abstract thinking compared to linear thought.
- Anxiety: Subjectively, JWH-018 induces less stress and stimulation than Δ9-THC, THJ-018, AM-2201, or 5F-UR-144 but more than JWH-073. This effect can be mitigated by benzodiazepines, other anti-anxiety agents, and a comfortable setting, and is known to lessen with tolerance.
- Panic Attacks: JWH-018 can trigger panic attacks at higher doses, typically stemming from paranoia. These panic attacks involve feelings of imminent death, impending doom, and severe paranoia, often requiring several minutes of reassurance to calm the user. This effect can be countered with benzodiazepines, other anti-anxiety agents, and a comfortable setting, and tends to decrease with tolerance.
- Conceptual Thinking
- Dream Suppression
- Immersion Enhancement
- Increased Music Appreciation
- Analysis Suppression
- Memory Suppression
- Paranoia: All cannabinoids, especially at high doses or with chronic use, can potentially induce paranoia.
- Psychosis: Prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may heighten the risk of psychosis, particularly in individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses, such as a history of schizophrenia.
- Thought Deceleration
- Psychedelics: Combining cannabinoids with psychedelics can significantly intensify and prolong visual and cognitive effects. This should be approached cautiously, especially by individuals lacking experience with psychedelics.
- Dissociatives: Combining JWH-018 with dissociatives often leads to enhanced geometry, euphoria, dissociation, and hallucinatory effects.
- Alcohol: The combination of cannabinoids and alcohol can result in extreme nausea, dizziness, and changes in perception of gravity. It is advisable to consume cannabis before alcohol and exercise caution.
No anecdotal reports describing the effects of JWH-018 are available within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be accessed through Erowid Experience Vaults: JWH-018.
The toxicity and long-term health consequences associated with the recreational use of JWH-018 have not been systematically studied within the scientific community, and the precise toxic dosage remains elusive. This knowledge gap exists primarily because the drug has a limited history of human consumption.
JWH-018, similar to numerous synthetic cannabinoids, functions as a full agonist of the CB1 receptors, in contrast to the partial agonist Δ9-THC. This distinction is significant as the harm resulting from CB1 receptor agonism can be more severe than what is observed with partial agonists. Reports indicate that JWH-018 has induced seizures and convulsions, possibly due to its more effective inhibition of GABA neurotransmission than Δ9-THC. Additionally, two healthy adults have experienced strokes in association with JWH-018 use.
Furthermore, JWH-018 has been known to exacerbate pre-existing psychological disorders, leading to intense paranoia, anxiety, and agitation. However, it’s essential to note that Δ9-THC, the active compound in natural cannabis, can also induce these effects. Consequently, individuals with severe pre-existing mental conditions should refrain from consuming these substances, given their potential to intensify the user’s current mental state. Like Δ9-THC, the prolonged use of synthetic cannabinoids may elevate the risk of mental illness and psychosis, particularly in individuals with predisposing factors such as a history of psychosis in themselves or their families.
It is strongly recommended that harm reduction practices be employed when using this drug to ensure safety.
Tolerance and Addiction Potential:
Much like other synthetic cannabinoids, chronic usage of JWH-018 carries a moderate risk of addiction and has a high potential for abuse, potentially leading to psychological dependence in specific individuals. Those who develop a habit may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms if they abruptly cease usage.
Tolerance to the effects of JWH-018 tends to develop with repeated and prolonged use. Consequently, users must often administer progressively higher doses to achieve the desired results. After discontinuation, it takes approximately 3 to 7 days for the tolerance to decrease by half and 1 to 2 weeks to return to baseline levels without further consumption. It’s important to note that JWH-018 induces cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that its use can diminish the effects of other cannabinoids.
Warning: Combining psychoactive substances can result in dangerous and potentially life-threatening interactions. The following list highlights known dangerous interactions, although it may not encompass all possibilities. Independent research, such as searching on Google, DuckDuckGo, or PubMed, is essential to verify the safety of combining two or more substances. Some interactions mentioned below have been sourced from TripSit.
- Amphetamines: Stimulants can elevate anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops, potentially leading to negative experiences.
- Cocaine: Stimulants can elevate anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops, potentially leading to negative experiences.
Australia: JWH-018 has been categorized as a dangerous drug under the Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987 in the State of Queensland. It shares the same schedule, schedule 2, as cannabis.
Austria: The Austrian Ministry of Health, on December 18, 2008, announced the control of Spice under paragraph 78 of their drug law due to its active substance affecting bodily functions. The legality of JWH-018 is currently under review, and it is now illegal to possess, produce, or sell it under the Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich (NPSG).
Belarus: This substance was prohibited in Belarus starting from January 1, 2010.
Brazil: JWH-018 is illegal in Brazil, and its possession, production, and sale are prohibited, as listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
Canada: While JWH-018 is considered a controlled substance in Canada, it is not listed under Schedule 2 synthetic cannabinoids.
China: China has made the sale of JWH-018 illegal, and importing and exporting the substance is prohibited.
Estonia: JWH-018 has been regulated under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act in Estonia since July 24, 2009.
Finland: This substance was banned in Finland on March 12, 2012.
France: JWH-018 has been classified as a controlled substance under Annexe IV since February 24, 2009.
Germany: JWH-018 falls under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) in Germany since January 22, 2009. Engaging in manufacturing, possession, import, export, purchase, sale, procurement, or dispensing is illegal without a license.
Ireland: Minister for Health Mary Harney declared an immediate ban on JWH-018 on May 11, 2010.
Italy: This substance was prohibited in Italy on July 2, 2010.
Latvia: JWH-018 is considered a controlled substance in Latvia since November 28, 2009.
Lithuania: JWH-018 is regulated as a controlled substance in Lithuania since May 27, 2009.
Luxembourg: JWH-018 has been classified as a controlled substance in Luxembourg since May 4, 2009.
Norway: This substance was banned in Norway on December 21, 2011.
Poland: JWH-018 has been considered a controlled substance in Poland since May 8, 2009.
Romania: This substance was prohibited in Romania on February 15, 2010.
Russia: This substance was banned in Russia on January 22, 2010.
South Korea: JWH-018 was forbidden in South Korea on July 1, 2009.
Sweden: A bill to ban JWH-018 was approved on July 30, 2009, and it came into effect on September 15, 2009.
Switzerland: JWH-018 is listed as a controlled substance under Verzeichnis D in Switzerland.
Turkey: JWH-018 is classified as a drug in Turkey and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.
Ukraine: This substance was prohibited in Ukraine on May 31, 2010.
United Kingdom: JWH-018 was banned in the United Kingdom on December 23, 2009.
United States: This substance was permanently scheduled on July 9, 2012, by Section 1152 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA).
1. What is JWH-018?
JWH-018 is a synthetic cannabinoid that was initially developed for research purposes. It is chemically designed to mimic the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound in cannabis. However, it is often used recreationally for its cannabis-like products.
2. How is JWH-018 typically used?
JWH-018 is commonly used by smoking or vaporizing it. Users often mix it with plant material or herbs to create a smoking blend or “spice.” It can also be found in liquid form and used in e-cigarettes or as a component of “liquid incense.”
3. What are the effects of JWH-018?
JWH-018 can produce a range of products similar to those of cannabis, including relaxation, altered perception, and increased appetite. However, it can also lead to more intense and sometimes harmful effects, such as anxiety, paranoia, and seizures.
4. Is JWH-018 legal?
The legal status of JWH-018 varies from country to country and even within different regions or states. It is considered illegal in many places due to its potential for abuse and adverse health effects. It is crucial to check the specific laws in your area to determine its legal status.
5. Are there any known health risks associated with JWH-018 use?
Yes, there are several health risks associated with JWH-018 use. These risks may include anxiety, paranoia, seizures, high blood pressure, and even strokes in some cases. Long-term use may also increase the risk of mental health issues and addiction.
6. Can JWH-018 be detected in drug tests?
Yes, JWH-018 and its metabolites can be seen in some standard drug tests. It is important to note that drug tests are continually evolving, and newer tests may detect synthetic cannabinoids like JWH-018 more effectively.
7. What precautions should I take if I choose to use JWH-018?
If you decide to use JWH-018, it is essential to exercise extreme caution. Start with a low dose to assess its effects on your body and mental state. Do not use it if you have pre-existing mental health conditions; never mix it with other substances. Always be aware of its legal status in your area and stay informed about potential health risks.
8. Is JWH-018 addictive?
Like other synthetic cannabinoids, JWH-018 has a high potential for psychological dependence and addiction. Users may develop cravings and experience withdrawal symptoms if they abruptly stop using it.
9. Can JWH-018 interact with other medications or substances?
Yes, JWH-018 can interact with other drugs or substances, potentially leading to dangerous effects. It is hazardous when combined with other psychoactive substances, stimulants, or alcohol. Always consult a healthcare professional if you are taking medications or have concerns about interactions.
10. Is there any safe use of JWH-018?
Due to the significant health risks associated with JWH-018, there is no guaranteed safe use. It is advisable to avoid its use altogether, and if you are struggling with substance abuse or addiction, seek help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist. Your health and well-being should always be the top priority.
- Understanding the DEA Rule: The DEA Rule on Synthetic Cannabinoids represents a significant step in regulating substances that mimic the effects of cannabis, such as JWH-018. This rule is enacted to control the manufacturing, distribution, and possession of these synthetic compounds.
- The Controlled Substances Act: The Controlled Substances Act is the foundation of drug control in the United States. It classifies substances into different schedules based on their potential for abuse and medical utility. Synthetic cannabinoids like JWH-018 may be categorized as controlled substances under this act.
- PDF Resources: The provided PDF documents offer valuable information on synthetic cannabinoids. The first PDF from Cayman Chemicals likely contains detailed data on JWH-018, while the second PDF could provide insights into the DEA Rule.
- Differentiating from Natural Cannabis: The DEA Rule focuses on synthetic cannabinoids, which are artificially created compounds designed to mimic the effects of natural cannabis. Natural cannabis, known as marijuana, is subject to distinct laws that vary by region.
- Scientific Research: Numerous scientific studies have explored the effects and risks of synthetic cannabinoids like JWH-018. Research includes investigations into their impact on the endocannabinoid system and potential health concerns.
- Legal Consequences: Violating the DEA Rule on Synthetic Cannabinoids can result in serious legal consequences, including criminal charges, fines, and imprisonment. It is crucial to understand the legal status of these substances in your area.
- Stay Informed: To stay updated on changes in regulations regarding synthetic cannabinoids, regularly check official government websites, seek advice from legal professionals, and monitor announcements from relevant regulatory agencies like the DEA.
- International Regulations: Synthetic cannabinoids are not limited to the United States. Many other countries have implemented regulations and bans on these substances, reflecting global concerns about their safety and legality.
- Research and Education: Ongoing research and education are essential to comprehensively understand synthetic cannabinoids and their effects, enabling informed decisions by policymakers and individuals.
- Global Impact: Synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018, have drawn attention worldwide due to their potential health risks and legal complexities. Understanding their regulation is essential for public health and safety.