PB-22 is a synthetic cannabinoid that has garnered attention as a designer drug, and the online market is flooded with sellers offering it for sale. However, delving into the world of PB-22 research chemical sellers raises significant concerns.
One of the primary issues with PB-22 sellers is the need for more regulation and oversight in the online marketplace. These vendors often operate in a legal gray area, exploiting loopholes in drug laws to sell these substances without adequate quality control or safety measures. This leaves buyers susceptible to purchasing products that may be impure, adulterated, or contaminated, posing severe health risks.
Furthermore, the credibility of PB-22 sellers is often questionable. Since designer drugs like PB-22 are relatively new and constantly evolving, the knowledge and expertise of these vendors can be limited. This lack of understanding may lead to inaccurate product descriptions, dosage recommendations, and potential misinformation about the substance’s effects.
Another concerning aspect is the marketing tactics employed by some PB-22 sellers. They frequently advertise their products as “legal highs” or “research chemicals,” creating an illusion of safety. However, the legality of these substances can change rapidly, and individuals may unknowingly be breaking the law by purchasing or possessing them.
In addition to these concerns, there is also the issue of ethical responsibility. Selling research chemicals like PB-22 without adequate information on potential risks and proper usage guidelines can have severe consequences for unsuspecting buyers.
- 1 SUMMARY
- 2 History
- 3 Detection
- 4 Legal status
- 5 FAQ
- 5.1 1. What is PB-22?
- 5.2 2. Is PB-22 legal?
- 5.3 3. What are the effects of PB-22?
- 5.4 4. Is PB-22 safe to use?
- 5.5 5. Where can I get PB-22?
- 5.6 6. Can PB-22 be detected in drug tests?
- 5.7 7. Are there any known side effects of PB-22?
- 5.8 8. What precautions should I take when using PB-22?
- 5.9 9. Is PB-22 used for any legitimate research purposes?
- 6 References
PB-22, also known as QUPIC, SGT-21, or 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid 8-quinolinyl ester, is a designer drug available through online vendors. It fell under the category of cannabimimetic agents and was first detected in synthetic cannabis products in Japan in 2013. What sets PB-22 apart from other synthetic cannabinoids is its unique chemical structure, featuring an ester linker at the indole 3-position, in contrast to the more common ketone structure found in JWH-018 and its analogs or the amide structure present in APICA and its analogs.
Regarding its pharmacological properties, PB-22 has shown notable affinity for human CB1 receptors with an EC50 of 5.1 nM and CB2 receptors with an EC50 of 37 nM. This indicates its potency as a cannabinoid-like substance. Studies on rats have revealed that PB-22 can induce bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypothermia (reduced body temperature) at doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 mg/kg, further emphasizing its potent cannabinoid-like activity. Notably, the duration and magnitude of hypothermia induced by PB-22 were more significant than those observed with other synthetic cannabinoids, such as JWH-018, AM-2201, UR-144, XLR-11, APICA, or STS-135, with a noticeable reduction in body temperature still evident six hours after dosing.
It’s worth mentioning that PB-22 has been associated with adverse effects in humans, as evidenced by a clinical toxicology study that identified it as the cause of seizures in both a human and their dogs. These findings underscore the potential risks and safety concerns associated with PB-22 and similar designer drugs, highlighting the need for caution and responsible usage.
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID70856177|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||358.441 g·mol−1|
PB-22 was initially created in 2012 by the New Zealand legal highs company Stargate International, where it was initially named SGT-21. It was designed as a structural hybrid, combining elements of QMPSB and JWH-018. Surprisingly, no efforts were made to secure intellectual property protection for the compound, leading to its rapid proliferation through gray-market sales beyond the oversight of its inventors.
A forensic standard for PB-22 is accessible, and this compound has been included on the Forendex website as a potential substance of abuse.
As of May 9, 2014, PB-22 became illegal in New Zealand.
In January 2014, PB-22 was classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States.
In Ohio, the possession and sale of PB-22 are prohibited.
Florida has also enacted a ban on PB-22.
Since December 13, 2014, PB-22 has been deemed illegal in Germany due to its inclusion in the BtMG Anlage II list.
As of October 2015, China has designated PB-22 as a controlled substance.
1. What is PB-22?
- PB-22, or SGT-21, is a synthetic cannabinoid developed as a research chemical. It has been associated with recreational use, similar to other synthetic cannabinoids.
2. Is PB-22 legal?
- The legal status of PB-22 varies by country and even within different regions of the same country. You must check your local laws and regulations regarding PB-22 before considering its possession or use.
3. What are the effects of PB-22?
- PB-22 is reported to have cannabinoid-like effects, including altered perception, relaxation, and, in some cases, adverse reactions like anxiety and paranoia. The specific effects can vary widely from person to person.
4. Is PB-22 safe to use?
- The safety of PB-22 is not well-established. Synthetic cannabinoids like PB-22 can have unpredictable and potentially harmful effects. There have been reports of adverse reactions, including seizures and other health issues associated with its use.
5. Where can I get PB-22?
- While PB-22 may be available from various sources, it is crucial to emphasize that purchasing synthetic cannabinoids from unverified or unregulated vendors can be dangerous. Always prioritize your safety and legality when considering any substance purchase.
6. Can PB-22 be detected in drug tests?
- Standard drug tests do not typically screen for PB-22. However, specialized tests may be able to detect its presence. Always be aware of the potential legal and employment consequences of consuming such substances.
7. Are there any known side effects of PB-22?
- Common side effects may include anxiety, paranoia, nausea, and other adverse reactions. Severe side effects, including seizures, have also been reported. It is essential to use caution if considering PB-22 and seek medical assistance if you experience adverse effects.
8. What precautions should I take when using PB-22?
- If you decide to use PB-22, it is crucial to do so in a safe and controlled environment, preferably under the supervision of a trusted individual. Start with a low dose, be aware of your mental and physical state, and have access to appropriate resources in case of emergencies. Always prioritize your well-being and safety.
9. Is PB-22 used for any legitimate research purposes?
- PB-22 was initially developed as a research chemical but has limited legitimate research applications. Most information available about PB-22 relates to its recreational use and potential risks.
- Uchiyama N, Matsuda S, Kawamura M, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y (2013). “Two new-type cannabimimetic quinolinyl carboxylates, QUPIC and QUCHIC, two new cannabimimetic carboxamide derivatives, ADB-FUBINACA and ADBICA, and five synthetic cannabinoids detected with a thiophene derivative α-PVT and an opioid receptor agonist AH-7921 identified in illegal products”. Forensic Toxicology. 31 (2): 223–240. doi:10.1007/s11419-013-0182-9. S2CID 1279637.
- ^ Lin M, Ellis B, Eubanks LM, Janda KD (July 2021). “Pharmacokinetic Approach to Combat the Synthetic Cannabinoid PB-22”. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 12 (14): 2573–2579. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00360. PMID 34254505. S2CID 235808519.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Banister SD, Stuart J, Kevin RC, Edington A, Longworth M, Wilkinson SM, et al. (August 2015). “Effects of bioisosteric fluorine in synthetic cannabinoid designer drugs JWH-018, AM-2201, UR-144, XLR-11, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, APICA, and STS-135”. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 6 (8): 1445–1458. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00107. PMID 25921407.
- ^ Gugelmann H, Gerona R, Li C, Tsutaoka B, Olson KR, Lung D (July 2014). “‘Crazy Monkey’ poisons man and dog: Human and canine seizures due to PB-22, a novel synthetic cannabinoid”. Clinical Toxicology. 52 (6): 635–638. doi:10.3109/15563650.2014.925562. PMID 24905571. S2CID 207647659.
- ^ Brandt SD, Kavanagh PV, Westphal F, Dreiseitel W, Dowling G, Bowden MJ, Williamson JP (January 2021). “Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists: Analytical profiles and development of QMPSB, QMMSB, QMPCB, 2F-QMPSB, QMiPSB, and SGT-233”. Drug Testing and Analysis. 13 (1): 175–196. doi:10.1002/dta.2913. PMID 32880103.
- ^ Forendex entry, Southern Association of Forensic Scientists
- ^ Jones N (1 May 2014). “Legal highs pulled from shelves”. New Zealand Herald. New Zealand Media and Entertainment. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
- ^ Behonick G, Shanks KG, Firchau DJ, Mathur G, Lynch CF, Nashelsky M, et al. (October 2014). “Four postmortem case reports with quantitative detection of the synthetic cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22”. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 38 (8): 559–562. doi:10.1093/jat/bku048. PMC 4334789. PMID 24876364.
- ^ “PB-22 and 5F-PB-22” (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control.
- ^ Pelzer J (April 17, 2014). “Ohio bans two synthetic marijuana drugs sold as “herbal incense””. cleveland.com.
- ^ “Statutes & Constitution :View Statutes : Online Sunshine”. Leg.state.fl.us. 1997-05-06. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- ^ “关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知” (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.