Cyclopropyl fentanyl is an opioid pain reliever, structurally similar to fentanyl, and has been distributed as a designer drug. Between June and December 2017, European countries reported a total of 78 fatalities linked to cyclopropyl fentanyl, with analytical confirmation from post-mortem samples. An additional 115 deaths associated with cyclopropyl fentanyl use were reported in the United States during 2017.
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||348.490 g·mol−1|
The side effects associated with fentanyl analogs closely resemble those of fentanyl itself, including symptoms such as itching, nausea, and the potential for severe respiratory depression, which can be life-threatening. Fentanyl analogs have tragically claimed the lives of hundreds of individuals in Europe and the former Soviet republics, with the resurgence in use commencing in Estonia in the early 2000s, and new derivatives continue to emerge.
In the United States, a new wave of fentanyl analogs and related fatalities emerged around 2014 and has continued to increase in prevalence. Especially since 2016, these substances have been responsible for hundreds of overdose-related deaths every week.
Cyclopropyl fentanyl was prohibited in Finland in September 2017 and in Sweden in October 2017. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, a designation that took effect in January 2018. In September 2018, the European Union implemented control measures for cyclopropylfentanyl.
- What is Cyclopropylfentanyl?
- Cyclopropyl fentanyl is a synthetic opioid structurally related to fentanyl. It has been used and distributed as a designer drug.
- What are the side effects of Cyclopropyl fentanyl?
- The side effects of Cyclopropyl fentanyl are similar to those of fentanyl itself and may include itching, nausea, and potentially severe respiratory depression, which can be life-threatening.
- How has the use of Fentanyl analogs impacted Europe and the former Soviet republics?
- The use of fentanyl analogs, including Cyclopropyl fentanyl, has tragically resulted in the deaths of hundreds of individuals in Europe and the former Soviet republics. The resurgence in use began in Estonia in the early 2000s, and new derivatives of these substances continue to emerge.
- When did the increase in fentanyl analogs and associated deaths begin in the United States?
- A new wave of fentanyl analogs and related fatalities began in the United States around 2014 and has continued to grow in prevalence. Especially since 2016, these drugs have been responsible for hundreds of overdose-related deaths every week.
- What is the legal status of Cyclopropyl fentanyl in Finland and Sweden?
- Cyclopropyl fentanyl was banned in Finland in September 2017 and in Sweden in October 2017. Both countries have taken legal measures to control its distribution and use.
- Is Cyclopropyl fentanyl legal in the United States?
- No, Cyclopropyl fentanyl is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States. This designation took effect in January 2018, making its possession and distribution illegal.
- What actions has the European Union taken regarding Cyclopropyl fentanyl?
- In September 2018, the European Union implemented control measures for Cyclopropylfentanyl. These measures are aimed at regulating and restricting its availability within member countries.
- Katie Park: “2 Arrested in Drug Scheme Funneling Cyclopropyl Fentanyl Pills into Monmouth County.” Published on app.com, December 20, 2017.
- Edison L, et al.: “Notes from the Field: Counterfeit Percocet-Related Overdose Cluster – Georgia, June 2017.” Published in MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report on October 20, 2017; Volume 66, Issue 41, pages 1119–1120. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6641a6. PMC: 5689089. PMID: 29049275.
- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (February 2018): “Cyclopropylfentanyl: EMCDDA–Europol Joint Report on a New Psychoactive Substance: N-phenyl-N-1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-ylcyclopropanecarboxamide (Cyclopropylfentanyl).” In accordance with Article 5 of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA on the information exchange, risk assessment, and control of new psychoactive substances. Published by the Publications Office. doi: 10.2810/06909. ISBN: 9789294972545.
- Wilde, Maurice; Sommer, Michaela J.; Auwärter, Volker; Hermanns-Clausen, Maren (November 2019): “Acute Severe Intoxication with Cyclopropylfentanyl, a Novel Synthetic Opioid.” Published in Toxicology Letters. Volume 320, pages 109–112. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.11.025. ISSN: 0378-4274. PMID: 31778775. S2CID: 208356660.
- “Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Cyclopropyl Fentanyl in Schedule I.” Published on www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov on January 4, 2018.
- Mounteney J, Giraudon I, Denissov G, Griffiths P (July 2015): “Fentanyls: Are We Missing the Signs? Highly Potent and on the Rise in Europe.” Published in The International Journal on Drug Policy. Volume 26, Issue 7, pages 626–31. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.04.003. PMID: 25976511.
- Armenian P, Vo KT, Barr-Walker J, Lynch KL (October 2017): “Fentanyl, Fentanyl Analogs, and Novel Synthetic Opioids: A Comprehensive Review” (PDF). Published in Neuropharmacology. Volume 134 (Part A), pages 121–132. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.10.016. PMID: 29042317. S2CID: 21404877.
- European Commission: “Notification Detail. Government Decree Amending Annex IV to the Government Decree on Substances, Preparations, and Plants to Be Classified as Narcotics.” The following 9 new substances are classified: 4-chloro-isobutyrfentanyl, 4-Fluoro-isobutyrfentanyl, 3-phenylpropanoylfentanyl, benzodioxole fentanyl, benzoyl fentanyl, cyclopentyl fentanyl, cyclopropyl fentanyl, methoxyacetyl fentanyl, and tetramethylcyclopropyane fentanyl. September 12, 2017.
- The Public Health Agency of Sweden: “14 New Substances Can Be Classified as Narcotics or Dangerous Products.” Published on October 14, 2017.
- Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice: “Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Cyclopropyl Fentanyl in Schedule I. Temporary Amendment; Temporary Scheduling Order.” Published in the Federal Register on January 4, 2018; Volume 83, Issue 3, pages 469–72. PMID: 29319947.
- “Two New Synthetic Opioids to Be Placed under Control across the EU.” Published on September 28, 2018.