Para-fluorophenylpiperazine (pFPP), also known as 4-FPP or Fluoperazine, is a derivative of piperazine that exhibits mild psychedelic and euphoric effects. It gained prominence as an ingredient in legal recreational substances commonly referred to as “Party pills.” Initially, these products were introduced in New Zealand and subsequently became available in various countries worldwide. In laboratory settings, pFPP has been observed to function as an agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor primarily. It also exhibits some affinity for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Additionally, pFPP has been shown to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine and may induce their release. Initially, pFPP was identified as a metabolite of the hypnotic niaprazine, which acts as a 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, back in 1982. However, its recreational potential was rediscovered in 2003. In New Zealand, it was sold as an active component in “Party pills” under brand names like “The Big Grin,” “Mashed,” and “Extreme Beans.” Over time, it has also been used as an ingredient in illicit “ecstasy” pills across the globe. pFPP’s effects are not predominantly stimulating, as its subjective impact primarily arises from its interaction with the 5-HT1A receptor. Effective doses typically range between 20 and 150 mg. Higher doses of pFPP can lead to various side effects, including migraine headaches, muscle discomfort, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting. Metabolic studies have revealed that pFPP inhibits different Cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver, which may contribute to its side effect profile. As a result of a recommendation from the EACD (Expert Advisory Committee on Drugs), the New Zealand government enacted legislation that classified BZP (Benzylpiperazine), along with several other piperazine derivatives, as Class C substances under the New Zealand Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. Although the ban was initially scheduled for December 18, 2007, it was not implemented until the following year. The sale of BZP and the listed piperazines became illegal in New Zealand as of April 1, 2008. An amnesty period for possession and usage of these substances persisted until October 2008, after which they were prohibited entirely. It’s worth noting that this drug has been identified in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United States.
Para-fluorophenylpiperazine, commonly known as pFPP, is a piperazine derivative. It is recognized for its mild psychedelic and euphoric effects.
How is pFPP typically used?
FPP has been marketed as an ingredient in legal recreational substances known as “Party pills.” These products were initially available in New Zealand and later in other countries.
What are the primary effects of FPP?
In laboratory settings, pFPP has been found to act as an agonist on the 5-HT1A receptor primarily. It also shows some affinity for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Additionally, pFPP inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine and may induce their release.
When was pFPP first discovered?
FPP was initially identified as a metabolite of niaprazine, a hypnotic that acts as a 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, in 1982. However, it was later rediscovered in 2003 as a potential recreational drug.
What are some familiar names or brand names associated with FPP?
In New Zealand, where it gained prominence, pFPP was marketed under various brand names, including “The Big Grin,” “Mashed,” and “Extreme Beans.”
What are the subjective effects of FPP?
FPP is not known for its stimulating effects. Instead, its subjective products are primarily due to its interaction with the 5-HT1A receptor. Users typically consume doses ranging from 20 to 150 mg.
What are the side effects or risks associated with pFPP use?
Higher doses of pFPP can lead to a range of side effects, including migraine headaches, muscle aches, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting. It’s essential to be cautious when using this substance, as its results can vary from person to person.
How has pFPP been regulated or banned in certain countries?
Based on recommendations from regulatory bodies, such as the Expert Advisory Committee on Drugs (EACD), some countries have classified pFPP and related substances as controlled substances. For instance, in New Zealand, pFPP, along with other piperazine derivatives, was placed in Class C under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975, resulting in a ban on its sale and usage.
What is the status of pFPP in the United States?
The legal status of pFPP may vary by state in the United States. It’s essential to be aware of and comply with local regulations regarding its use, sale, or possession.
Is pFPP associated with any illegal activities or safety concerns?
Yes, pFPP has been associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault cases in the United States. This highlights the importance of using caution when it comes to substances like FPP.
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