Bromazolam (also known as XLI-268) is a triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD) compound initially synthesized in 1976 but never brought to the pharmaceutical market. It gained recognition as a designer drug and was first conclusively identified by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) in Sweden in 2016. As the bromo analogue of alprazolam, it exhibits similar sedative and anxiolytic properties to both alprazolam and other benzodiazepines. Bromazolam acts as a non-subtype selective agonist at the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors, demonstrating a binding affinity of 2.81nM at the α1 subtype, 0.69nM at α2, and 0.62nM at α5.
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||353.223 g·mol−1|
In the United States, Bromazolam is not classified under federal scheduling. However, some states, including Virginia, have individually categorized Bromazolam as a Schedule 1 substance at the state level. It’s worth noting that this classification does not encompass the chloro analogue Phenazolam.
Even though it is not federally scheduled, there have been instances of arrests in the United States related to the improper marketing of Bromazolam as Alprazolam. This often involves presenting it in the form of counterfeit Xanax tablets, leading to charges of fake drug distribution, among other legal implications.
In Illinois, at least one individual has faced charges for the “unlawful possession of a controlled substance,” which is classified as a Class 4 felony. This pertained to the possession of a quantity less than 15 grams (½ oz) of Bromazolam, which mirrors the charges for unlawful possession of Alprazolam in Illinois. It remains uncertain whether this arrest was connected to counterfeit Xanax-shaped tablets or Bromazolam powder. It’s noteworthy that Bromazolam is not officially scheduled in Illinois.
In the United Kingdom, Bromazolam is categorized as a Class C controlled substance.
- What is Bromazolam?
- Bromazolam is a synthetic compound belonging to the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD) class, which includes benzodiazepines fused with a triazole ring. It is chemically related to Alprazolam but with a bromine atom instead of chlorine. It exhibits sedative and anxiolytic effects similar to other benzodiazepines.
- Is Bromazolam legally available?
- The legal status of Bromazolam varies by country and even within regions of certain countries. In the United States, it is not scheduled at the federal level, but some states have classified it as a Schedule 1 substance at the state level. In the United Kingdom, it is categorized as a Class C controlled substance.
- What are the legal consequences of possessing or distributing Bromazolam in the U.S.?
- The legal consequences for possessing or distributing Bromazolam in the United States can be severe. There have been instances of arrests, mainly when Bromazolam is marketed as Alprazolam (commonly known as Xanax), leading to counterfeit drug charges. Penalties may vary by state and specific circumstances.
- Is Bromazolam safe for consumption?
- The safety of Bromazolam, like other benzodiazepines, depends on responsible use and proper medical supervision when applicable. It is essential to be aware of the potential for dependence, tolerance, and adverse effects. Never use it without a prescription or medical guidance.
- Are there any known side effects of Bromazolam?
- Common side effects of Bromazolam use can include drowsiness, dizziness, memory impairment, and reduced motor coordination. Overdose or misuse can lead to more severe symptoms, such as respiratory depression.
- Is Bromazolam used for medical purposes?
- Unlike many other benzodiazepines, Bromazolam has not been approved for medical use in most countries. It is more commonly associated with recreational or non-medical use.
- Is Bromazolam related to other designer drugs?
- Yes, Bromazolam is part of the family of designer drugs, where novel compounds are created to mimic the effects of established substances like benzodiazepines. These designer drugs may evade legal restrictions and are often sold through illicit markets.
- How should I handle Bromazolam?
- If you have Bromazolam or come into contact with it, it’s essential to treat it with caution. Please do not use it without a valid prescription, and be aware of its potential risks and legal implications in your region.
- Can Bromazolam cause addiction?
- Yes, like other benzodiazepines, Bromazolam has the potential for dependence and addiction, mainly when used recreationally or inappropriately.
- What should I do if I suspect someone has overdosed on Bromazolam?
- If you suspect a Bromazolam overdose, seek immediate medical assistance. Overdose symptoms may include severe drowsiness, slowed or difficulty breathing, confusion, or loss of consciousness. It’s crucial to act swiftly to save a life potentially.
- The Emergence of New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines, including new psychoactive substances (NPS) within this class, have gained attention worldwide. These substances may not be well-regulated and can pose risks to public health. Researchers and authorities closely monitor and study NPS benzodiazepines.
- Europol’s Annual Report on the Implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA: Europol releases an annual report detailing the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA, which aims to combat the illicit drug trade and related activities. This report provides insights into the dynamic landscape of emerging substances, including designer drugs.
- Predictive Models for GABA-A Receptor Binding: Researchers have developed quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the binding of substances to GABA-A receptors. Understanding the receptor binding of emerging benzodiazepines is crucial for assessing their pharmacological effects.
- Designer Benzodiazepines: The world of new psychoactive substances includes designer benzodiazepines. These substances are chemically designed to mimic the effects of traditional benzodiazepines but may have varying properties and safety profiles.
- The Alpha 5 GABA(A) Benzodiazepine Receptor Model: Advances in the understanding of the alpha 5 GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptor model have implications for the development and study of benzodiazepine-related compounds.
- State-Specific Drug Laws in the U.S.: Drug laws in the United States can vary by state. Some states, such as Virginia, have enacted their own legislation regarding controlled substances, including designer drugs.
- Legal Actions Against Counterfeit Drugs: There have been instances where counterfeit drugs, including those containing designer benzodiazepines, have led to legal actions. Law enforcement agencies work to combat the distribution of these potentially dangerous substances.
- Illinois Controlled Substances Act: In the state of Illinois, the Controlled Substances Act outlines regulations and schedules for controlled substances, including penalties for unlawful possession or distribution.