The online market for research chemicals has burgeoned in recent years, providing researchers with convenient access to novel substances like 4-AcO-DMT. However, the proliferation of online sellers offering this designer drug for sale demands a critical evaluation of these vendors.
While the ease of purchasing 4-AcO-DMT and other research chemicals online is undeniable, the lack of regulation and oversight raises significant concerns. Many of these sellers operate without proper quality control measures, potentially compromising the purity and authenticity of their substances. This jeopardizes the integrity of scientific research and poses potential health risks to unsuspecting buyers.
Furthermore, the variability in pricing among different sellers is troubling. Some vendors advertise 4-AcO-DMT at alarmingly low prices, which could indicate substandard manufacturing or misrepresentation of the product. Conversely, exorbitant prices do not necessarily guarantee higher quality. This price disparity underscores the absence of a standardized market, further muddying the waters for researchers and enthusiasts alike.
A critical issue with these online vendors is the lack of transparent information provided about the product. Authentic sellers should furnish comprehensive details about the composition, sourcing, and handling of 4-AcO-DMT, which is crucial for responsible use and accurate scientific investigation—the absence of such information hints at the prioritization of profit over safety and genuine scientific advancement.
The surge in online sellers offering 4-AcO-DMT and similar research chemicals has unveiled a landscape fraught with risks. Researchers must approach these vendors cautiously, meticulously assessing their credibility, reputation, and transparency. Collaborative efforts from the scientific community, regulatory authorities, and online platforms are vital to establishing stringent standards for the sale of research chemicals, ensuring the integrity of research endeavors and the well-being of those who buy these substances.
- 1 Brief
- 2 History
- 3 Dosage
- 4 Chemistry
- 5 Pharmacology
- 6 Effects
- 7 Physical effects
- 8 Visual effects
- 9 Cognitive Impact
- 10 Multi-sensory Experiences
- 11 Toxicity and Potential for Harm
- 12 Dependence and Potential for Misuse
- 13 Potential Interactions of Concern
- 14 Legal Classification
- 15 FAQ
- 15.1 1. What is 4-AcO-DMT?
- 15.2 2. How is 4-AcO-DMT typically used?
- 15.3 3. What are the effects of 4-AcO-DMT?
- 15.4 4. Is 4-AcO-DMT legal?
- 15.5 5. What are the potential risks and side effects of using 4-AcO-DMT?
- 15.6 6. Are there any interactions to be aware of when taking 4-AcO-DMT?
- 15.7 7. What precautions should one take when using 4-AcO-DMT?
- 15.8 8. Can 4-AcO-DMT be used for therapeutic purposes?
- 15.9 9. Can 4-AcO-DMT lead to addiction or dependence?
- 16 References
4-Acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, commonly referred to as 4-AcO-DMT, holds a position as a lesser-known psychedelic compound within the tryptamine class. This substance shares a structural affinity with psilocybin and psilocin, the active components found in “magic mushrooms.” The mechanism through which 4-AcO-DMT exerts its effects involves the binding to serotonin receptors within the brain, although the exact intricacies of this process remain elusive.
Origins of 4-AcO-DMT trace back to its synthesis in 1963 by Albert Hofmann and Franz Troxler. Although initially manufactured as part of exploring psilocin analogs, its psychoactive potential was not assessed then. The chronicle of its debut in human research is obscure. Still, in 1999, David E. Nichols proposed its potential as a cost-effective substitute for psilocybin in pharmacological studies. The substance was later felt in recreational circles upon its integration into the online research chemical market in the 2010s.
Users of 4-AcO-DMT report experiencing various effects, including geometric visual distortions, alterations in time perception, heightened introspection, euphoria, and dissolution of the ego. Parallel to psilocybin, 4-AcO-DMT induces nearly identical psychedelic experiences, potentially due to its speculated role as a precursor to psilocin, akin to how psilocybin operates. These desirable effects and a favorable safety profile have propelled its popularity among those seeking mystical or entheogenic encounters. Often distributed as capsules or pressed pills, it is marketed as “synthetic shrooms.”
Information regarding the pharmacology, metabolism, and toxicity of 4-AcO-DMT is notably scant. Although perceived to share a toxicity profile similar to psilocybin mushrooms, which are acknowledged to possess minimal physiological harm, empirical data supporting this assertion remains lacking. Caution is paramount, and harm reduction practices are strongly recommended for individuals contemplating using this substance.
Formal Name 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol-4-acetate, monohydrochloride
CAS Number 2748484-99-1
Molecular Formula C14H18N2O2 • HCl
Formula Weight 282.8
A solution in acetonitrile
DMF: 30 mg/ml
DMSO: 10 mg/ml
Ethanol: 20 mg/ml
PBS (pH 7.2): 10 mg/ml
λmax 219, 277 nm
InChi Code InChI=1S/C14H18N2O2.ClH/c1-10(17)18-13-6-4-5-12-14(13)11(9-15-12)7-8-16(2)3;/h4-6,9,15H,7-8H2,1-3H3;1H
InChi Key OEPCTLAWMZJUIX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
On January 16, 1963, Sandoz Ltd., represented by Albert Hofmann and Franz Troxler, filed a patent for 4-AcO-DMT along with various other psilocin esters. Despite this patent, the compound’s pharmacological properties and subjective impact remained unexplored. The precise timeline of the initiation of human research into the effects of 4-AcO-DMT remains undisclosed.
|Light||7.5 – 15 mg|
|Common||15 – 25 mg|
|Strong||25 – 45 mg|
|Heavy||45 mg +|
|Total||4 – 7 hours|
|Onset||15 – 40 minutes|
|Come up||30 – 75 minutes|
|Peak||2 – 3.5 hours|
|Offset||1 – 2 hours|
4-AcO-DMT, scientifically termed 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, belongs to the class of synthetic compounds categorized as tryptamines. Tryptamines share a foundational structure characterized by a bicyclic indole heterocycle affixed at the R3 position to a terminal amino group using an ethyl side chain. Within 4-AcO-DMT, the indole heterocycle at its core is modified at the R4 site, hosting an acetoxy (-AcO) functional group represented by CH3COO−. Moreover, the compound encompasses two methyl groups, CH3-, bound to the terminal amine RN of the ethyl side chain.
4-AcO-DMT operates as the acetate ester counterpart to psilocin (4-HO-DMT) and holds the position of the N-substituted methyl homolog of 4-AcO-MET. Distinguishing itself as the O-acetylated manifestation of psilocin, it contrasts with psilocybin, which takes on the form of the O-phosphorylated variant.
Upon ingestion, O-acetylpsilocin, also known as 4-AcO-DMT, undergoes deacetylation into psilocin through enzymatic actions of deacetylases/acetyltransferases during its initial pass through metabolism and subsequent passages through the liver. This process is evident in the active nature of psilacetin when administered via routes other than ingestion.
The psychedelic attributes of 4-AcO-DMT are attributed to its function as a partial agonist for the 5-HT2A receptor. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms through which these interactions contribute to the psychedelic encounter remain a topic of ongoing scientific exploration.
Perceptions regarding differences in effects between the acetylated and non-acetylated incarnations of psilocin exhibit variability. Some assert that O-acetylpsilocin exhibits a slightly prolonged duration, while others note a notably briefer duration. Numerous users report experiencing diminished bodily discomfort and reduced nausea compared to psilocin. For certain users, the visual effects induced by O-acetylpsilocin are closer to those influenced by DMT rather than those elicited by psilocin or psilocybin. Such distinctions might arise if psilacetin possesses inherent psychoactivity beyond functioning solely as a prodrug. Despite these observations, controlled clinical research delineating the phenomenological differences between psilacetin, psilocin, and psilocybin remains absent.
Users often draw a striking resemblance between 4-AcO-DMT and psilocybin mushrooms. The typical description characterizes it as inducing euphoria, maintaining a gentle and warm quality while infusing the experience with vivid colors. Certain users report heightened visuals, with brighter, more neon-like hues reminiscent of DMT. Moreover, it is noted for inducing less nausea than psilocybin mushrooms, possibly because it doesn’t necessitate the digestion of mushroom material.
Please note: The ensuing effects, as outlined below, are derived from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), founded on anecdotal user accounts and the personal assessments of contributors to PsychonautWiki. Consequently, a degree of skepticism is advised when considering these effects.
Furthermore, it’s important to acknowledge that these effects might not manifest consistently or predictably, although larger doses are more likely to encompass the complete array of products. Similarly, as doses escalate, the likelihood of adverse effects increases, including addiction, severe harm, or fatality.
Sedation: 4-AcO-DMT is often characterized as inducing relaxation, serenity, and mild sedation. This sedative quality is frequently accompanied by frequent yawning and watery eyes.
Sense of Bodily Heaviness
Spontaneous Bodily Sensations:
The overarching physical sensation brought about by 4-AcO-DMT can be described as pleasurable, enveloping, and warm, often manifesting as a gentle tingling sensation throughout the body. This sensation gradually intensifies as the experience begins, culminating at its peak. At this pinnacle, pronounced physical and cognitive euphoria, alongside feelings of tranquility, sedation, or even temporary immobilization, can arise based on dosage.
Enhanced Tactile Perception:
While not as conspicuous as with LSD or 2C-B, tactile enhancement is distinct and characterized by primitive qualities. Often, users report slight itchiness or tickling sensations on the skin, particularly among the fine hairs on arms or legs.
Alterations in Perceived Bodily Form:
This phenomenon, typically occurring post-peak, accompanies a sense of warmth. Users might feel an interconnectedness with surrounding objects, evoking a serene and mindful experience, although occasional bodily tension might manifest.
Shifts in Perceived Gravity
Adequate mitigation of this effect can be achieved by consuming 4-AcO-DMT on an empty stomach. Alternatively, a light meal 3 to 4 hours prior can also alleviate nausea, particularly if the user is physically fatigued or undernourished. Compared to psilocybin mushrooms, 4-AcO-DMT-induced nausea is generally less pronounced due to the absence of fungal matter that needs digestion when the synthetic form is consumed.
Temperature Regulation Impact:
Fluctuations in internal temperature perception can lead to abrupt sensations of coldness or warmth. Maintaining a climate-controlled environment is highly recommended.
Muscle Contractions: The muscle contractions related to 4-AcO-DMT are often fleeting and relatively benign compared to other tryptamines, phenethylamines, and lysergamides.
This distinctive effect is particularly prominent with psilocin and related tryptamines, though it can also arise to a lesser extent with LSD and infrequently with phenethylamines like mescaline. Yawning is commonly coupled with watery eyes.
Heightened Gustatory Perception
Enhanced Olfactory Sensation
Teeth Grinding: This effect is notably milder than typically experienced with MDMA.
Uncommon and primarily observed in predisposed individuals, brain zaps associated with 4-AcO-DMT are less prevalent and intense than those occurring with serotonin-releasing agents such as MDMA.
Seizures (citation needed): Seizures are a rare occurrence, primarily affecting those with pre-existing predispositions, especially under physically taxing conditions such as overheating, dehydration, malnourishment, or fatigue.
- Visual Acuity Enhancement
- Heightened Color Perception
- Improved Pattern Recognition
- Magnification Distortions:
- Drifting (Melting, Flowing, Breathing, Morphing): Compared to other psychedelics, this effect is characterized by meticulous, lifelike, deliberate, and smooth motion with a static appearance.
- Shifting Colors
- Tinted Color Perception
- Visual Haze
- Symmetrical Texture Repetition
- Altered Perspective
- Distorted Depth Perception
- Environmental Orbism
- Scenery Slicing
- Patterned Environments Geometry: The visual geometry induced by 4-AcO-DMT resembles psilocin, low-medium dose DMT, and ayahuasca rather than LSD or 2C-B. It can be comprehensively described as intricately complex, abstract in form, organically styled, structured in arrangement, vibrant and multicolored, glossily shaded, softly defined, large, slow-moving, smoothly flowing, rounded, shallow in depth, and consistently intense. At higher doses, it’s more likely to evoke Level 8B visual geometry compared to Level 8A.
Hallucinatory States: 4-AcO-DMT reliably generates a broad range of high-level hallucinatory states, exhibiting greater consistency and reproducibility than many other widely used psychedelics. These states encompass:
- Machin escapes (occurs primarily at strong to heavy doses, less consistently than in psychedelics like DMT, ETH-LAD, and 2C-P, and atypical psychedelics like salvia)
- Internal Hallucinations (autonomous entities, settings, landscapes, perspectives, scenarios): Especially prominent in dark settings at substantial doses, these can be described as vivid, interactive, novel, controllable, geometry-rooted, often centered around personal, spiritual, religious, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, or transcendental themes.
- External Hallucinations (autonomous entities, settings, landscapes, perspectives, scenarios): More prevalent in dark environments, these are characterized by their realistic believability, interactive nature, fresh content, controllability, geometry-influenced style, and themes typically aligned with personal, spiritual, religious, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, or metaphysical concepts.
The cognitive repercussions and general mental state induced by 4-AcO-DMT are frequently described as profoundly relaxing and characterized by a slow-paced demeanor, in contrast to other widely used psychedelics like LSD or 2C-B, which tend to evoke a distinct energetic and stimulating response. Moreover, it is often acknowledged for its higher clarity than psilocybin mushrooms.
Enhancement of Analysis:
This effect consistently presents itself, often leaning towards outward contemplation, but introspection is also possible depending on one’s mindset and surroundings. Amplification of Novelty Heightened Immersion Boosted Creativity Enhanced Conceptual Thinking Suppression of Personal Bias Multiple Streams of Thought Intensified Emotions – This impact stands out with greater prominence, consistency, and depth when contrasted with other conventional psychedelics such as mescaline or LSD. This can result in potent sensations of compassion, urgency, and sporadic bursts of intense emotional significance. These emotional states can also be subject to periodic cycles of enhancement and suppression. Nonetheless, many reports suggest that the emotional intensity is not as steady as that triggered by consuming psilocybin mushrooms.
Simultaneous Emotional Responses Amplification of Empathy, Affection, and Sociability – This effect differs from MDMA and other entactogens in that it is less central to the experience, feels more natural rather than forced, and occurs at a less predictable rate. While the substance consistently generates heightened empathy and affection, increased sociability is rare due to the cognitive effects that suppress language and memory.
This phenomenon involves a perceived inability or general reluctance to speak aloud despite being fully capable of forming coherent thoughts internally. This is more common among inexperienced users.
Cycles of Enhancement and Suppression:
This pattern entails alternating waves of heightened and profound thinking, which are cyclically overtaken by general thought suppression and cognitive intoxication periods. When present, these states switch in a consistent loop every 20 to 60 minutes.
Heightened Sense of Humor Fits of Laughter Enhanced Appreciation for Music Cognitive Euphoria Suppression of Memory Loss of Ego Identity Sensations of Impending Dread – This effect typically arises during the initial phases. Still, it tends to subside as the primary results take hold. It’s important to note that this experience is normal for psilocin and related tryptamines, underlining the significance of maintaining a positive and well-informed mindset. Occasionally, this aspect can also emerge during the peak but is often followed by feelings of euphoria and rejuvenation.
Cathartic Release Renewed Vitality:
While this sensation can manifest spontaneously at any point, it usually follows a challenging phase of the experience, if not the entire experience itself. Connected Thoughts Deceleration of Thought Processes Enhanced Thought Organization Repetitive Thought Patterns Distorted Perception of Time Confusion Delusions Mindful Awareness Shift in Ego Perception – Although this effect is uncommon and more likely with certain psychedelics like DMT or ayahuasca, it can still emerge spontaneously, particularly with higher doses. Reversion of Personality – Although not commonly observed, this effect can spontaneously surface, primarily influenced by the user’s mindset and environment.
Synesthesia – This phenomenon is exceptionally rare and not easily replicable. While higher doses can enhance the chances of its occurrence, it appears to be a significant aspect of the experience mainly for individuals who are already prone to synesthetic perceptions.
Combinations and Interactions Cannabis – Cannabis has been reported to greatly enhance the visual, sensory, and cognitive effects of 4-AcO-DMT. However, this combination should be approached with utmost caution. Anecdotal accounts suggest an increased risk of encountering a challenging trip characterized by anxiety, confusion, and even psychosis.
Dissociatives – 4-AcO-DMT accentuates the geometric patterns, euphoria, dissociation, and hallucinatory aspects of all dissociative substances, especially the phenomenon of dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids. Additionally, it may notably heighten internal hallucinations, confusion, nausea, delusions, and the potential for a psychotic reaction.
The effects of MDMA are significantly potentiated when combined with 4-AcO-DMT. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, necessitating the initiation of the combination with lower doses than what would be taken individually. The safety implications of this combination are uncertain, and some evidence suggests that it might elevate the neurotoxic effects of MDMA. It is important to exercise caution.
While not recommended, pairing alcohol with 4-AcO-DMT can lead to dehydration, nausea, and physical fatigue, adversely impacting the experience, especially at moderate to high doses. However, in lower doses, this combination is relatively safe and can sometimes mellow the psychedelic effects of 4-AcO-DMT, akin to the development of benzodiazepines.
Depending on the dosage, benzodiazepines can reduce the intensity of cognitive, physical, and visual effects during a 4-AcO-DMT experience. They can serve to mitigate distressing trips by alleviating excessive anxiety and hallucinations. It’s important to exercise caution when considering their use for this purpose, as they carry a high potential for abuse.
Toxicity and Potential for Harm
The toxicity and potential long-term health repercussions associated with 4-AcO-DMT remain unstudied, and the precise threshold for toxicity is yet undetermined. This lack of information arises because 4-AcO-DMT is categorized as a research chemical with a brief history of human usage. While its chemical structure resembles psilocybin mushrooms, akin safety data is absent, making it difficult to draw direct comparisons.
Though anecdotal accounts imply an absence of adverse health consequences when cautiously experimenting with 4-AcO-DMT at low to moderate doses and using it infrequently, it’s crucial to acknowledge that absolute assurances cannot be given. Before consumption, it is imperative to independently research and verify the safety of combining 4-AcO-DMT with other substances.
Dependence and Potential for Misuse
Much like other psychedelics, 4-AcO-DMT is generally regarded as non-addictive and carries a low risk of being abused.
Tolerance to the effects of 4-AcO-DMT develops almost immediately following ingestion. Subsequently, it takes approximately seven days for the patient to reset to its baseline state (if the substance is not consumed again during this period). Notably, 4-AcO-DMT induces cross-tolerance across all psychedelics, implying that its consumption will diminish its impact on all psychedelics.
Potential Interactions of Concern
While certain psychoactive substances may appear safe when used independently, their combination with specific other substances can suddenly escalate into dangerous and potentially life-threatening situations. The ensuing list offers some recognized instances of risky interactions (though it may not encompass all potential interactions).
Always conduct autonomous research (e.g., using search engines like Google, DuckDuckGo, and PubMed) to confirm the safety of combining two or more substances before consumption. Some of the cited interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Lithium – Lithium is commonly prescribed to manage bipolar disorder. An extensive collection of anecdotal evidence points to a heightened risk of psychosis and seizures when taken alongside psychedelics. Consequently, this combination is strongly discouraged.
- Cannabis – The interaction between cannabis and 4-AcO-DMT might produce potent and erratic effects. Exercising caution is imperative due to the increased likelihood of adverse psychological responses like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and even psychosis. Users are advised to begin with a fraction of their usual cannabis dosage and allow ample intervals between consumption to prevent unintentional overdose.
- Stimulants – Substances such as amphetamine, cocaine, or methylphenidate affect various brain regions and modify dopaminergic function. This combination elevates the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. Additionally, there might be an escalated likelihood of experiencing mania and psychosis.
- Tramadol – Tramadol is well-documented to lower the threshold for seizures, and when combined with psychedelics, it could potentially trigger seizures in individuals predisposed to them.
4-AcO-DMT lacks inclusion within international drug schedules, such as those defined by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Consequently, it occupies an ambiguous legal realm across various countries. While not explicitly unlawful, individuals might still face charges related to its possession, particularly under circumstances involving analog laws, intent to distribute, or personal use.
Within Australia, 4-AcO-DMT can be classified as a psilocin analog, thus falling under Schedule 9 of the Poisons Standard. This designation denotes it as a controlled substance, restricting activities like manufacturing, possession, sale, or use unless sanctioned for medical, scientific, educational, or analytical purposes with approval from relevant health authorities.
Importing 4-AcO-DMT into Belgium is prohibited under local law.
The possession, production, and sale of 4-AcO-DMT are illegal in Brazil, as outlined in Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
Due to its relationship with DMT, 4-AcO-DMT falls under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) in Germany. Since January 24, 1974, activities involving this substance, including manufacturing, possession, import, export, purchase, sale, procurement, or dispensation, require a license.
Italy prohibits the possession of 4-AcO-DMT due to its association with an illicit substance.
4-AcO-DMT has been deemed a controlled substance in Japan since July 29, 2015.
As of January 25, 2017, 4-AcO-DMT is categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance in Sweden.
Given its structural similarity to Psilocin, 4-AcO-DMT could be classified as an illegal analog, according to Buchstabe B in Switzerland.
Turkey categorizes 4-AcO-DMT as a drug and prohibits its possession, production, supply, or import.
In the UK, 4-AcO-DMT is designated as a Class A drug due to its relation to the Class A substance psilocin.
4-AcO-DMT remains unscheduled in the United States. However, according to the Controlled Substances Act, it might be treated as an analog of Psilocin, a Schedule I drug. Thus, selling it for human consumption or employing it for non-medical or non-research purposes could result in prosecution under the Federal Analogue Act.
1. What is 4-AcO-DMT?
4-AcO-DMT is a synthetic psychedelic compound belonging to the tryptamine class. It is structurally related to psilocybin, the active component in magic mushrooms, and is often considered a prodrug of psilocin.
2. How is 4-AcO-DMT typically used?
4-AcO-DMT is commonly taken orally, either in its pure form or by dissolving it in a liquid. It is known to produce psychedelic effects similar to those of psilocybin, including alterations in perception, mood, and cognitive processes.
3. What are the effects of 4-AcO-DMT?
The effects of 4-AcO-DMT can include visual and auditory hallucinations, changes in thought patterns, feelings of introspection, and alterations in the perception of time. These effects can vary depending on the dosage, individual physiology, and the setting in which the substance is consumed.
4. Is 4-AcO-DMT legal?
The legal status of 4-AcO-DMT varies by country and jurisdiction. In many places, it is considered a controlled substance and is illegal to possess, produce, or distribute. It is essential to check local laws and regulations before attempting to obtain or use 4-AcO-DMT.
5. What are the potential risks and side effects of using 4-AcO-DMT?
Some potential risks associated with 4-AcO-DMT use include anxiety, paranoia, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and potentially dangerous behavior if taken in inappropriate settings. There may also be risks of psychological distress, especially for individuals with underlying mental health conditions.
6. Are there any interactions to be aware of when taking 4-AcO-DMT?
There can be interactions with certain medications, substances, or health conditions. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before taking 4-AcO-DMT, especially if one is currently taking any medications, has a history of mental health issues, or has any pre-existing medical conditions.
7. What precautions should one take when using 4-AcO-DMT?
Some precautions include testing the substance for purity and dosage accuracy, using the substance in a safe and controlled environment, having a trusted and sober individual present, and avoiding mixing it with other substances.
8. Can 4-AcO-DMT be used for therapeutic purposes?
There is some interest in the potential therapeutic applications of 4-AcO-DMT, especially in the field of psychedelic-assisted therapy. However, more research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic potential and any associated risks.
9. Can 4-AcO-DMT lead to addiction or dependence?
While 4-AcO-DMT is not believed to be physically addictive, psychological dependence and compulsive use can occur in some individuals. As with any substance, it is essential to use it responsibly and with caution.
- “Bibliographic data: US3075992 (A) ― 1963-01-29”. European Patent Office. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ↑ Nichols, D. E.; Frescas, S. (June 1999). “Improvements to the Synthesis of Psilocybin and a Facile Method for Preparing the O-Acetyl Prodrug of Psilocin” (PDF). Synthesis. 1999 (6): 935–938. eISSN 1437-210X. ISSN 0039-7881.
- ↑ “4-AcO-DMT (also 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) : Erowid Exp: Main Index”. www.erowid.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-28.
- ↑ Armstrong, B. D.; Paik, E.; Chhith, S.; Lelievre, V.; Waschek, J. A.; Howard, S. G. (October 26, 2004). “Potentiation of (DL)‐3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)‐induced toxicity by the serotonin 2A receptior partial agonist d‐lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and the protection of same by the serotonin 2A/2C receptor antagonist MDL 11,939”. Neuroscience Research Communications. 35 (2): 83–95. doi:10.1002/nrc.20023. eISSN 1520-6769.
- ↑ Gudelsky, G. A.; Yamamoto, B. K.; Nash, F. (November 3, 1994). “Potentiation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopamine release and serotonin neurotoxicity by 5-HT2 receptor agonists”. European Journal of Pharmacology. 264 (3): 325–330. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(94)90669-6. eISSN 1879-0712. ISSN 0014-2999. OCLC 01568459.
- ↑ Capela, J. P.; Fernandes, E.; Remião, F.; Bastos, M. L.; Meisel, A.; Carvalhoa, F. (July 2007). “Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons”. NeuroToxicology. 28 (4): 868–875. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.04.005. ISSN 0161-813X. OCLC 47153737. PMID 17572501.
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). “Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol”. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- ↑ “Poisons Standard”. Federal Register of Legislation. Australian Government. October 2020. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- ↑ “RESOLUÇÃO DA DIRETORIA COLEGIADA – RDC N° 130, DE 2 DE DEZEMBRO DE 2016” (in Portuguese). Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) [Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA)]. December 5, 2016.
- ↑ “Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG) Anlage I” [Narcotics Act (BtMG) Schedule I] (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- ↑ “Sechste Verordnung über die den Betäubungsmitteln gleichgestellten Stoffe” (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 1974 Teil I Nr. 6 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag (published January 23, 1974). January 17, 1974. pp. 97–98. eISSN 0344-7634.
- ↑ “Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG) § 29” [Narcotics Act (BtMG) § 29] (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- ↑ “危険ドラッグの成分４物質を新たに指定薬物に指定” (in Japanese). 厚生労働省 [Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW)]. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
- ↑ “Gemensamma författningssamlingen avseende hälso- och sjukvård, socialtjänst, läkemedel, folkhälsa m.m” (PDF). Läkemedelsverket [Medical Products Agency] (published January 16, 2017). January 10, 2017. ISSN 2002-1054. HSLF-FS 2017:1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 31, 2017.
- ↑ “Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien” (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3.htm
- ↑ https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3-1.pdf
- ↑ “Part I: Class A Drugs”. “Misuse of Drugs Act 1971”. UK Government. Retrieved January 7, 2020.