A-PVP, also known as Alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone, is a synthetic designer drug that has garnered significant attention recently. As this research chemical gained popularity, the demand for it also grew, leading to the emergence of various online sellers and vendors claiming to offer A-PVP for sale. However, the proliferation of A-PVP sellers in the online marketplace raises several critical concerns.
First and foremost, the legitimacy and trustworthiness of these online sellers still need to be investigated. Given the illicit nature of designer drugs like A-PVP, it is challenging to determine whether these vendors adhere to any ethical or safety standards in their operations. The lack of regulation in the research chemical market makes it a fertile ground for unscrupulous individuals looking to make a quick profit without regard for potential customer risks.
Moreover, the ease of buying A-PVP online raises serious public health and safety concerns. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs that undergo rigorous testing and quality control, research chemicals like A-PVP are often synthesized in clandestine laboratories with no oversight. This lack of quality control can result in variations in purity and potency, putting users at risk of unexpected adverse effects and potential harm.
Furthermore, the marketing tactics employed by A-PVP sellers are concerning. Many vendors promote A-PVP as a recreational substance rather than emphasizing its intended use as a research chemical. This misleading marketing encourages misuse and contributes to the overall negative image of research chemicals in society.
- 1 SUMMARY
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 Legal status
- 7 FAQ
- 7.1 1. What is α-PVP?
- 7.2 2. How is α-PVP commonly used?
- 7.3 3. What are the effects of α-PVP?
- 7.4 4. Is α-PVP addictive?
- 7.5 5. Are there any health risks associated with α-PVP use?
- 7.6 6. Is α-PVP legal?
- 7.7 7. What is harm reduction when using α-PVP?
- 7.8 8. Can α-PVP cause psychosis?
- 7.9 9. What should I do in case of α-PVP overdose or adverse effects?
- 7.10 10. Is there any safe use of α-PVP?
- 8 References
Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, also known as α-PVP, A-PVP, alpha-PVP, or flakka, represents an innovative stimulant compound belonging to the cathinone and pyrrolidinophenone categories. Chemically akin to prolintane, it falls within the group known as substituted cathinones, encompassing compounds such as MDPV, Hexen, and a-PHP. Its primary mechanism of action revolves around functioning as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor.
Initially patented in the 1960s by Boehringer Ingelheim, α-PVP never made it to the commercial market. Nevertheless, reports of its usage began surfacing in the early 2010s. α-PVP has garnered considerable media attention due to its presence as a component in “bath salts” or “legal highs” products. Mass production in China has led to its availability online, typically marketed as a research chemical. Notably, α-PVP has been associated with numerous cases of hospitalization and overdose deaths.
User testimonials highlight that α-PVP induces potent yet brief stimulant effects that can be likened to methamphetamine and cocaine when administered through insufflation or vaporization. Frequently reported effects encompass heightened alertness, reduced inhibitions, increased sexual desire, compulsive re-dosing tendencies, and euphoria. As with other synthetic cathinones, α-PVP is notorious for its potential to trigger compulsive use and addiction.
Scarce information exists concerning a-PVP’s pharmacological attributes, metabolism, and toxicity. Given its robust psychostimulant properties and an unknown toxicity profile, it is strongly recommended that harm reduction practices be diligently employed when handling this substance.
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID70456954|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||231.339 g·mol−1|
Alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone, commonly called α-PVP, represents a synthetic compound categorized within the substituted cathinones group. Substituted cathinones are derivatives of cathinone, a naturally occurring psychoactive component found in khat (Catha edullis). Cathinone possesses a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon and a ketone group at the beta carbon. In the case of α-PVP, its structure incorporates a cathinone core with a propyl group substituting the alpha carbon and a pyrrolidine ring attached to the amino group.
The hydrochloride form of α-PVP is characterized as a crystalline powder, either white or off-white, devoid of odor. It boasts a melting point of 161.3°C. This substance is known to exhibit solubility in various solvents, including PBS (~10mg/ml, pH7.2), EtOH (~20mg/ml), DMSO (~10mg/ml), and DMF (~3mg/ml).
Alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) functions as a robust and specific inhibitor of norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake (NDRI), exhibiting a potency akin to MDPV. Notably, α-PVP diverges from the role of a transporter substrate, implying that it does not trigger the release of neurotransmitters. Remarkably, it surpasses classical stimulants like cocaine and amphetamine in its capacity to inhibit the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET).
|Compound||DAT (nM)||NET (nM)||SERT (nM)||DAT/SERT ratio|
|a-PVP||12.8 ± 1.2||14.2 ± 1.2||>10,000||>781|
|MDPV||4.1 ± 0.6||25.9 ± 5.6||3305 ± 485||806|
|Cocaine||211 ± 19||292 ± 34||313 ± 17||1.5|
|Amphetamine||93 ± 17||67 ± 16||3418 ± 314||37|
Disclaimer: The subsequent descriptions of effects are derived from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a research compilation based on anecdotal user reports and analyses by PsychonautWiki contributors. Caution should be exercised in interpreting these reports, considering their anecdotal nature.
Note: The effects detailed below may not manifest predictably or consistently, with higher doses increasing the likelihood of experiencing the full effects. Additionally, it is crucial to acknowledge that adverse effects become more probable at elevated doses, potentially involving addiction, severe harm, or even fatality ☠.
- Stimulation: α-PVP is remarkably stimulating and energetic, encouraging physical activities such as running, climbing, dancing, or repetitive tasks. Higher doses may induce involuntary bodily shakes and vibrations, leading to instability and loss of motor control.
- Spontaneous Bodily Sensations: This compound generates a moderate to extreme euphoric tingling sensation throughout the body, intensifying as the experience progresses.
- Tactile Enhancement: α-PVP can heighten the sense of touch to an extreme degree, often resulting in sexual arousal.
- Vibrating Vision (Nystagmus): The eyeballs may spontaneously oscillate rapidly, causing blurred and unfocused vision, known as nystagmus.
- Appetite Suppression
- Abnormal Heartbeat: At higher doses or prolonged use, α-PVP may induce uncomfortable or painful sensations in the heart, particularly for individuals with a family history of heart issues.
- Increased Blood Pressure: Vaporized or injected α-PVP can lead to sudden spikes in blood pressure, causing discomfort often described as an “exploding heart” sensation.
- Increased Heart Rate
- Dehydration: α-PVP may cause dry mouth and dehydration, attributed to increased heart rate, adrenergic activity, and physical exertion. Users are advised to sip water and avoid over-drinking to prevent water intoxication.
- Dry Mouth
- Mouth Numbing: Like cocaine, α-PVP numbs areas it contacts, including nostrils, gums, mouth, and the urethra.
- Increased Perspiration
- Difficulty Urinating: Higher doses of α-PVP can result in temporary difficulty urinating but are typically harmless.
- Headaches: Frequently occurring toward the end of the experience or during it.
- Muscle Spasms
- Restless Legs
- Vasoconstriction: α-PVP is reported to be highly vasoconstrictive at higher doses, comparable to amphetamine and methamphetamine.
- Teeth Grinding: Less intense than MDMA but more prominent at high doses.
- Seizures: α-PVP may lower the seizure threshold, especially with abuse.
- Brightness Alteration: By dilating pupils, α-PVP can enhance the perception of brightness in surroundings.
- Drifting: This mild visual effect may increase with sleep deprivation.
- Visual Acuity Suppression: α-PVP can impair vision, potentially leading to peripheral hallucinations.
- Hallucinatory States
- Peripheral Information Misinterpretation
- Scenarios and Plots
The cognitive effects of α-PVP intensify with dosage, characterized by extreme mental stimulation and a powerful euphoria that fades rapidly.
- Anxiety & Paranoia: High doses or misuse may induce extreme paranoia, particularly during the comedown.
- Thought Acceleration
- Cognitive Euphoria: Comparable to amphetamine or cocaine, accompanied by joy and happiness attributed to enhanced norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibition.
- Immersion Enhancement
- Focus Enhancement: Enhances focus but may result in a fixation on a single task.
- Ego Inflation: Temporarily induces egomania at peak effects.
- Increased Libido: This can lead to extreme sexual arousal due to disinhibition.
- Increased Music Appreciation
- Analysis Enhancement: Typically occurs at low doses but becomes impairing at higher doses.
- Motivation Enhancement: Brief, intense motivation that often does not translate into productive action.
- Compulsive Redosing: A common trait of this drug class.
- Feelings of Impending Doom: Typically experienced with abuse, high doses, or during binge comedowns.
- Time Distortion: Strong feelings of time compression and heightened perception of experience.
- Psychosis: Prolonged abuse can lead to psychosis.
- Auditory Distortion
- Auditory Hallucination
The “comedown” phase, occurring as neurotransmitter levels deplete, often entails adverse and uncomfortable effects.
- Appetite Suppression
- Cognitive Fatigue
- Dream Potentiation
- Sleep Paralysis
- Motivation Suppression
- Thought Deceleration
Research on the toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PVP use is lacking in scientific contexts, primarily due to its limited history of human usage. Consequently, the precise toxic dosage remains unknown, so exercise caution is essential.
Anecdotal reports suggest that trying α-PVP at low to moderate doses, used sparingly, does not appear to have adverse health effects. However, it’s crucial to remember that no guarantees can be made.
α-PVP has been implicated as a primary or contributing factor in suicides and overdoses involving combinations of drugs, leading to fatalities. One reported case involved α-PVP and pentedrone, resulting in heart failure.
It is strongly recommended to employ harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Dependence and Abuse Potential:
Like other stimulants, α-PVP’s chronic use is highly addictive and carries a substantial risk of abuse, potentially leading to psychological dependence. Users may experience cravings and withdrawal effects upon sudden cessation of use.
Tolerance develops with prolonged and repeated use, necessitating larger doses to achieve the same effects. Tolerance reduction takes approximately 3 to 7 days to halve and 1 to 2 weeks to return to baseline (without further consumption). Cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants occurs, diminishing the effects of other stimulants.
α-PVP, like other stimulants, can induce stimulant psychosis, characterized by symptoms like paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. Complete recovery may not occur for 5-15% of users.
Caution is crucial when combining substances, as seemingly safe compounds can become dangerous or life-threatening. Some known dangerous interactions include:
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH: Combining these compounds with α-PVP can lead to excessive stimulation, heart strain, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure.
- Alcohol: Mixing alcohol with stimulants carries the risk of over-intoxication, as stimulants mask alcohol’s depressant effects.
- DXM: Combining DXM with α-PVP should be avoided due to their effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, increasing the risk of panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MDMA: Neurotoxic effects of MDMA may intensify when combined with other stimulants, potentially leading to excessive blood pressure and heart strain.
- MXE: Combining with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives: Both substances risk delusions, mania, and psychosis, which may be amplified when combined.
- Stimulants: Combining α-PVP with other stimulants like cocaine can elevate heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Tramadol: Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold, and combining it with stimulants may further increase this risk.
Serotonin Syndrome Risk:
Certain combinations can lead to dangerously high serotonin levels, causing serotonin syndrome. Immediate medical attention is required, as it can be fatal if left untreated. These combinations include:
- MAOIs: Such as banisteriopsis caapi, Syrian rue, phenelzine, selegiline, and moclobemide.
- Serotonin Releasers: MDMA, 4-FA, methamphetamine, methylone, and αMT.
- SSRIs: Such as citalopram and sertraline.
- SNRIs: Such as tramadol and venlafaxine.
In June 2016, the European Council determined that α-PVP should be subjected to control measures and legal penalties by Member States no later than July 3, 2017.
α-PVP was made illegal in New South Wales following its unlawful promotion based on incorrect legal advice suggesting analog provisions of the relevant act didn’t cover it. It has been illegal in New South Wales for several years. This legislative action was prompted by the deaths of two individuals associated with its use.
As of June 26, 2019, α-PVP is prohibited regarding possession, production, and sale under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
α-PVP is categorized as a controlled substance.
Possession, production, and sale of α-PVP are illegal, as listed in Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
Since October 2015, α-PVP has been classified as a controlled substance in China.
α-PVP is controlled under the New Psychoactive Substances Legislation, effective June 24, 2011.
α-PVP is recognized as a controlled substance.
α-PVP is listed in Regulation No. 73, effective June 2, 2014.
α-PVP is included in the Narcotics Act 373, effective December 30, 2013.
α-PVP has been a controlled substance since August 2, 2012.
α-PVP falls under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II), effective July 17, 2013. Manufacturing, possessing, importing, exporting, buying, selling, procuring, or dispensing it without a license is illegal.
α-PVP is categorized as a controlled substance under law 3459/2006.
α-PVP is classified as a Schedule A controlled substance.
α-PVP is recognized as a controlled substance, falling under the generic definition of controlled cathinone.
α-PVP has been classified as a controlled substance since December 29, 2011.
α-PVP is considered a controlled substance.
α-PVP has been a controlled substance since 2010.
α-PVP is categorized as a controlled substance.
α-PVP has been classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance since July 1, 2015.
α-PVP has been designated a controlled substance since April 17, 2013.
α-PVP is recognized as a controlled substance.
α-PVP is categorized as a controlled substance as of October 1, 2013.
α-PVP has been considered a controlled substance since July 2014.
α-PVP falls under the Narcotic Drugs Control Act as of February 2013.
α-PVP is a controlled substance explicitly listed under Verzeichnis D.
α-PVP is classified as a controlled substance, effective March 22, 2012.
In the United Kingdom, α-PVP is categorized as a Class B drug, following the inclusion of the cathinone catch-all clause.
On January 28, 2014, the U.S. DEA placed α-PVP, along with nine other synthetic cathinones, under Schedule 1 with a temporary ban, effective February 27, 2014.
1. What is α-PVP?
α-PVP, also known as alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, is a synthetic substance belonging to the substituted cathinones group. It shares structural similarities with cathinone, a naturally occurring psychoactive compound found in khat.
2. How is α-PVP commonly used?
α-PVP is typically found as a white or off-white crystalline powder. Users may consume it by various methods, including insufflation (snorting), vaporization, or oral ingestion.
3. What are the effects of α-PVP?
α-PVP is known for its stimulant effects, similar to methamphetamine and cocaine. Users may experience increased energy, euphoria, enhanced tactile sensations, and stimulation. However, it is also associated with side effects like anxiety, paranoia, and compulsive redosing.
4. Is α-PVP addictive?
Like many stimulants, α-PVP can be highly addictive and may lead to psychological dependence with chronic use. Users can develop cravings, and withdrawal symptoms may occur when usage is abruptly halted.
5. Are there any health risks associated with α-PVP use?
The long-term health effects of α-PVP have not been extensively studied in scientific research due to its limited history of human usage. However, it has been linked to adverse effects such as paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. It’s also been associated with fatalities, especially when combined with other drugs.
6. Is α-PVP legal?
The legal status of α-PVP varies by country and region. It is classified as a controlled substance in many places, making its possession, sale, and use illegal. Always check your local laws and regulations regarding α-PVP.
7. What is harm reduction when using α-PVP?
Harm reduction practices are essential when using α-PVP or any potentially harmful substance. These practices include using the substance sparingly, starting with low doses, staying hydrated, and avoiding combinations with other drugs, especially alcohol. Seeking professional help for addiction is crucial if needed.
8. Can α-PVP cause psychosis?
Like other stimulants, α-PVP can lead to stimulant psychosis, which may involve symptoms such as paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. Recovery from this condition may not be complete for some users.
9. What should I do in case of α-PVP overdose or adverse effects?
If you suspect an α-PVP overdose or experience severe adverse effects, seek immediate medical attention. Do not hesitate to contact emergency services or go to the nearest hospital.
10. Is there any safe use of α-PVP?
Due to the potential health risks and legal consequences associated with α-PVP, it is strongly discouraged. Safer choices for recreational substances should be considered, and if you or someone you know is struggling with α-PVP use, seek help from healthcare professionals or addiction support services.
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