A-PHP, a potent and potentially dangerous research chemical, has gained popularity recently, leading to many online sellers offering it for sale. While some vendors may claim to provide a reliable source for this designer drug, caution is imperative when considering a purchase.
One of the primary concerns with A-PHP research chemical sellers is the lack of regulation and oversight in this market. Many online vendors operate in a grey area of legality, exploiting legal loopholes to sell potentially harmful substances. This lack of oversight means that the quality and purity of the product can vary widely, putting buyers at significant risk. Without proper quality control, consumers may receive an impure, contaminated, or mislabeled product, posing serious health risks.
Furthermore, the ethics surrounding the sale of A-PHP and similar designer drugs are dubious at best. These substances are often marketed as research chemicals, but it is no secret that they are frequently purchased for recreational use. Vendors who knowingly cater to this demand are, in essence, profiting from the sale of substances with little to no safety data, potentially harming their customers.
Additionally, the online nature of these transactions creates a sense of anonymity for both buyers and sellers, making it difficult to hold sellers accountable for any harm that may arise from their products. This lack of transparency and accountability further underscores the risks of purchasing A-PHP from online vendors.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 Legal status
- 7 FAQ
- 7.1 1. What is A-PHP?
- 7.2 2. How is A-PHP typically used?
- 7.3 3. What are the effects of A-PHP?
- 7.4 4. Is A-PHP legal?
- 7.5 5. What are the risks associated with A-PHP use?
- 7.6 6. How can I reduce harm when using A-PHP?
- 7.7 7. Can A-PHP cause addiction?
- 7.8 8. Is there a safe or recommended dosage for A-PHP?
- 7.9 9. Can A-PHP be detected in drug tests?
- 7.10 10. Where can I find help for A-PHP addiction or related issues?
- 8 References
Alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone, also known as PV-7, alpha-PHP, A-PHP, or α-PHP, is a relatively obscure stimulant compound in the cathinone class. Structurally related to MDPV, it is one of the successors of the designer drug cathinone analogue α-PVP.
In the aftermath of the ban on α-PVP, colloquially known as “flakka,” alpha-PHP has emerged as a substitute in various parts of the world. Initially manufactured on a large scale in Chinese industrial facilities, the imposition of restrictions within China has led to its production spreading globally.
Users have reported subjective effects such as euphoria, heightened thought processes, decreased inhibitions, and an inflated sense of self. Typically available as a fine powder or crystallized shards, it can induce potent but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects, often likened to the sensations associated with vaporized methamphetamine and cocaine. However, akin to its cathinone predecessors, it has earned notoriety for its propensity to induce compulsive redosing and addictive behaviours. Additionally, when abused, it can lead to delusional states and psychosis.
Scant data regarding the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of α-PHP is available. It has recently gained popularity as a legal, grey-market alternative to a-PVP and is frequently marketed alongside other research chemical stimulants like NEP and Hexen. These substances are commercially distributed through online research chemical vendors.
It is important to emphasize the necessity of harm-reduction practices when considering using this compound. Given the limited information about its effects and risks, individuals should exercise extreme caution and prioritize safety when engaging with alpha-PHP.
|show IUPAC name|
|CAS Number||13415-86-6 HCl: 13415-59-3|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||245.366 g·mol−1|
α-PHP, also known as α-Pyrrolidinohexanophenone, falls into the category of substituted cathinones and substituted pyrrolidines. Its molecular structure comprises hexanal linked to a phenyl ring at the one position and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring at the two positions.
Compared to α-PVP, α-PHP is considered its longer chain homolog, distinguished by extra carbon in the alkyl side chain.
The precise mechanism of action for α-PHP remains unclear. While it exhibits a considerably shorter duration of effects, it is believed to function like the designer drugs pentedrone and α-PVP. These substances are recognized as potent norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs). However, it is important to note that extensive research on the pharmacology of α-PHP is still lacking.
In essence, it is postulated that α-PHP operates by effectively enhancing the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters within the brain. This is achieved through its binding to and partial obstruction of the transporter proteins responsible for removing these monoamines from the synaptic cleft. Consequently, dopamine and norepinephrine accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
Compared to its predecessor, α-PVP, reports suggest that this compound, α-PHP, may induce slightly milder anxiety, fewer uncomfortable side effects, a more moderate sense of euphoria, and a smoother comedown.
Please note that the following effects are based on the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a compilation of anecdotal user experiences and analyses by contributors to PsychonautWiki. As a result, these effects should be viewed with a degree of scepticism.
It is also crucial to understand that these effects may not occur consistently or predictably. However, higher doses are more likely to produce a broader range of effects. Additionally, higher doses increase the risk of adverse effects, including addiction, severe physical harm, or even death.
- Stimulation: α-PHP is known for its potent stimulation, although it tends to be less intense than α-PVP. This stimulation can encourage physical activities such as running, climbing, and dancing but may also lead to restlessness and repetitive tasks.
- Spontaneous Physical Sensations: Users often describe a euphoric tingling sensation that spreads throughout the body, which can become overwhelming at higher doses.
- Tactile Enhancement: α-PHP enhances the sense of touch, often increasing sexual arousal.
- Vibrating Vision: Some users may experience rapid eye movement, causing blurred and unfocused vision (nystagmus).
- Appetite Suppression
- Focus Enhancement: α-PHP can enhance focus but fix users on a specific task, no matter how trivial.
- Mouth Numbing: Similar to cocaine, this compound may numb areas it comes into contact with, such as the nostrils, gums, mouth, and throat.
- Abnormal Heartbeat: α-PHP’s rush can cause discomfort or pain in the heart, especially when misused or used for extended periods. Individuals with heart issues are advised against using it in potent forms.
- Increased Blood Pressure: Particularly when vaporized or injected, α-PHP can lead to sudden spikes in blood pressure, causing an uncomfortable “exploding heart” sensation.
- Increased Heart Rate
- Dehydration: Dry mouth and dehydration are common due to increased heart rate, physical activity, and adrenergic activity. Users should avoid over-drinking to prevent water intoxication.
- Dry Mouth
- Difficulty Urinating: Higher doses of α-PHP may temporarily make urination challenging but are typically harmless.
- Headaches Often occur towards the end of the experience or occasionally during it.
- Increased Perspiration
- Muscle Spasms
- Restless Leg Syndrome
- Vasoconstriction: α-PHP is highly vasoconstricting at higher doses, similar to amphetamine and methamphetamine.
- Teeth Grinding: Less intense than MDMA but may increase at high doses.
- Seizure: In some individuals, α-PHP may lower the seizure threshold, especially when misused.
- Brightness Alteration: α-PHP can make environments appear brighter due to pupil dilation.
- Drifting: Mild and increases with sleep deprivation.
- Visual Acuity Suppression: This may cause visual impairments and peripheral hallucinations.
- Hallucinatory States
- Peripheral Information Misinterpretation
- Scenarios and Plots
- Cognitive Euphoria: Similar to amphetamine or cocaine, resulting from serotonin and dopamine accumulation in the brain’s reward pathways.
- Analysis Enhancement: Typically occurs at low doses but becomes more impairing with higher intake.
- Anxiety & Paranoia: Can induce extreme anxiety and paranoia when dosed too highly or frequently, particularly during the comedown phase.
- Feelings of Impending Doom: Typically associated with abuse, high doses, or binge comedowns, although rare.
- Information Processing Suppression
- Ego Inflation: Temporarily induces egomania at its peak, similar to cocaine or methamphetamine.
- Compulsive Redosing: Although somewhat less compulsive than α-PVP, users are advised to exercise caution.
- Immersion Enhancement
- Motivation Enhancement: Provides short-lived motivation but rarely translates into productive action.
- Increased Libido: Induces extreme sexual arousal due to disinhibiting effects.
- Increased Music Appreciation
- Thought Acceleration
- Time Distortion: Strong feelings of time compression, enhancing the perception of experience.
- Auditory Distortion
- Auditory Hallucination
- Psychosis: This may induce psychosis with compulsive binging, although less likely than A-PVP.
- Cognitive Fatigue
- Motivation Suppression
- Thought Deceleration
The toxicity and long-term health implications of recreational α-PHP use have not been adequately examined within a scientific framework, and the precise toxic dosage remains unknown. This knowledge gap exists because α-PHP has a limited history of human consumption. Anecdotal evidence from individuals within the community who have experimented with α-PHP suggests that using it at low to moderate doses, on an infrequent basis, does not appear to be associated with significant adverse health effects. Nevertheless, it is crucial to emphasize that no guarantees can be made regarding its safety.
It’s noteworthy that α-PHP has been implicated as the primary cause or a significant contributing factor in cases of death resulting from suicides or drug overdoses involving combinations of substances.
For those considering using α-PHP, it is strongly advised to practice harm reduction measures.
Tolerance and Addiction Potential:
Similar to other short-acting, highly dopaminergic stimulants, chronic use of α-PHP carries a high potential for addiction and abuse, leading to psychological dependence in some users. Those addicted may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms if they abruptly cease usage.
Tolerance to the effects of α-PHP typically develops with sustained and repetitive consumption. This necessitates progressively larger doses to achieve the same effects. Following cessation, it takes approximately 3 to 7 days for tolerance to diminish by half and 1 to 2 weeks to return to baseline (assuming no further consumption). Notably, α-PHP generates cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that its use can reduce the effectiveness of other stimulants.
α-PHP, like other strongly dopaminergic stimulants, has the potential to induce stimulant psychosis, characterized by symptoms such as paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. Research on treating amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis suggests that approximately 5–15% of users may not fully recover. However, antipsychotic medications have effectively resolved symptoms in acute amphetamine-induced psychosis cases.
Caution is essential when combining psychoactive substances, as seemingly safe substances can become difficult or life-threatening. The list below outlines some known dangerous interactions, though it may not cover all potential risks. Independent research, consulting reputable sources, and responsible decision-making are vital for ensuring safety when combining substances. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH: Avoid combining these highly stimulating compounds with A-PHP, as it may lead to excessive stimulation, heart strain, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and even heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol: Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous, as it can mask alcohol’s depressant effects, potentially leading to over-intoxication. Once the stimulant’s effects wear off, unopposed depressant effects can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If combined, alcohol consumption should be strictly limited.
- DXM: Combining DXM with A-PHP should be avoided due to its inhibitory effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, increasing the risk of panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome when used with serotonin releasers like MDMA.
- MDMA: Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be heightened when combined with other stimulants. Additionally, there is an elevated risk of increased blood pressure, heart strain (cardiotoxicity), and other adverse effects.
- MXE: Reports suggest that combining MXE with A-PHP may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives: Combining A-PHP with dissociatives can increase the risk of delusions, mania, and psychosis, especially when both substances are used.
- Stimulants: A-PHP can increase heart rate and blood pressure, potentially leading to dangerous levels when combined with other stimulants like cocaine.
- Tramadol: Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold, and combining it with stimulants may further increase this risk.
Serotonin Syndrome Risk:
Combinations with certain substances can result in dangerously high serotonin levels, potentially leading to serotonin syndrome, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Substances contributing to this risk include MAOIs, serotonin releasers like MDMA, SSRIs, SNRIs, and 5-HTP.
Internationally, α-PHP was incorporated into the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances as a Schedule II controlled substance in March 2020.
Here is the legal status of α-PHP in various countries:
- α-PHP is prohibited for possession, production, and sale under the Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich (NPSG).
- All cathinone analogues, including α-PHP, are categorized as controlled substances, rendering them illegal for possession, use, and distribution since September 7, 2018. This was achieved through a comprehensive ban law appended to Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- α-PHP has been classified as a controlled substance in China since October 2015.
- α-PHP is designated as a controlled substance under the Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtmG) as of December 21, 2022. Possession, production, sale, and consumption are illegal and subject to penalties.
- The President of the Republic of Italy categorized cathinone and all its structurally derived analogues, including pyrovalerone analogues, as Narcotics in January 2012.
- As of October 29, 2021, α-PHP has been banned under the 1971 Vienna Convention on Psychotropic Substances in the Netherlands.
- α-PHP is classified as a narcotic substance. Derivative of Cathinone under Verzeichnis E point 1, α-PHP is legal for scientific or industrial use but restricted otherwise.
- United Kingdom:
- It is categorized as a Class B drug in the United Kingdom under the cathinone catch-all clause.
- United States:
- α-PiHP has been placed in Schedule I on a Temporary Placement basis. This order, extending a previous temporary scheduling order issued by the DEA (84 FR 34291, July 18, 2019), has been in effect since July 18, 2021, and expires on July 18, 2022. Consequently, the sale and use of this compound are prohibited.
1. What is A-PHP?
A-PHP, or Alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone, is a synthetic stimulant member of the cathinone class of chemicals. It is structurally related to substances like MDPV and is often considered a successor to the designer drug α-PVP.
2. How is A-PHP typically used?
A-PHP is usually consumed by inhaling, vaporizing, or smoking it. It can also be taken orally or through other routes, but these methods are less common.
3. What are the effects of A-PHP?
The effects of A-PHP are similar to other stimulant substances and may include increased alertness, energy, euphoria, enhanced focus, and heightened sensory perception. However, it can also induce undesirable effects such as anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations, particularly at higher doses.
4. Is A-PHP legal?
The legal status of A-PHP varies by country and region. In many places, it is classified as a controlled substance, making its possession, sale, or use illegal. Researching and understanding the specific laws and regulations in your area regarding A-PHP is essential.
5. What are the risks associated with A-PHP use?
A-PHP use carries several risks, including addiction potential, psychological dependence, and adverse physical and mental health effects. Compulsive redosing, heart issues, dehydration, and psychosis are potential dangers. Additionally, the long-term health effects of A-PHP are not well-studied.
6. How can I reduce harm when using A-PHP?
Harm reduction practices are crucial if you choose to use A-PHP despite its risks. Some tips include starting with low doses, avoiding frequent use, staying hydrated, and having a trusted friend present. It’s essential to be aware of the potential for addiction and practice moderation.
7. Can A-PHP cause addiction?
Yes, A-PHP has a high potential for addiction. Like many stimulants, it can lead to psychological dependence, cravings, and withdrawal symptoms when use is stopped abruptly.
8. Is there a safe or recommended dosage for A-PHP?
There is no safe or recommended dosage for A-PHP, as its effects vary significantly among individuals. Using the lowest effective dose and avoiding excessive use is the best approach to minimize risks.
9. Can A-PHP be detected in drug tests?
A-PHP may not be included in standard drug tests, but specialized tests can detect its presence in the system. You must be aware of potential drug screening and the substances being tested for in your situation.
If you or someone you know is struggling with A-PHP addiction or related problems, seeking professional help is strongly recommended. Contacting a healthcare provider, addiction counsellor, or local support groups can provide valuable assistance and guidance in overcoming substance abuse.
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