- 1 Summary
- 2 Legal status
- 3 FAQ
- 3.1 1. What is α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP)?
- 3.2 2. What are the effects of α-PPP?
- 3.3 3. Where is α-PPP found?
- 3.4 4. Is α-PPP legal?
- 3.5 5. Are there more potent and addictive analogues of α-PPP?
- 3.6 6. What are the neurotoxic effects of α-PPP?
- 3.7 7. Is α-PPP safe for human consumption?
- 3.8 8. Is there a recommended dosage for α-PPP?
- 3.9 9. Can α-PPP be detected in drug tests?
- 4 References
α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP) is a stimulant substance with a chemical structure akin to diethylpropion, an appetite suppressant. Its effects in animals resemble those of diethylpropion. Limited information is available about this compound, but it has been identified by laboratories in Germany as an ingredient in “ecstasy” tablets confiscated by law enforcement agencies. α-PPP has demonstrated stimulant effects in animals, suggesting it likely has similar effects in humans, given the context in which it’s been discovered.
In the United Kingdom, α-PPP is unlawful due to its inclusion in the class of substituted cathinones, prohibited by a comprehensive ban. In other countries such as the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, it may be deemed a controlled substance analogue due to its structural similarity to illegal drugs like methcathinone and pyrovalerone. Related compounds like pyrovalerone and MDPV have seen more extensive use and are believed to be more potent and habit-forming than α-PPP itself. Research into the structure-activity relationships of these substances suggests that various ring-substituted analogues have the potential for abuse, with stimulant effects noted in analogues possessing alkyl chains containing between 3 and 6 carbon atoms. Furthermore, α-PPP has been observed to induce neurotoxic effects in animal studies.
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID50897462|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||203.285 g·mol−1|
1. What is α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP)?
- α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone, often abbreviated as α-PPP, is a synthetic stimulant drug that shares structural similarities with diethylpropion, an appetite suppressant.
2. What are the effects of α-PPP?
- α-PPP is known to produce stimulant effects, both in animals and presumably in humans. These effects can include increased alertness, energy, and euphoria.
3. Where is α-PPP found?
- It has been detected as an ingredient in “ecstasy” tablets seized by law enforcement authorities, particularly in Germany.
4. Is α-PPP legal?
- The legal status of α-PPP varies by country. In the United Kingdom, it is illegal under the blanket ban on substituted cathinones. In other countries like the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, it might be considered a controlled substance analogue due to its structural similarity to illegal drugs like methcathinone and pyrovalerone.
5. Are there more potent and addictive analogues of α-PPP?
- Yes, substances like pyrovalerone and MDPV, which are analogues of α-PPP, are believed to be more potent and addictive.
6. What are the neurotoxic effects of α-PPP?
- Studies in animals have shown that α-PPP can have neurotoxic effects, but the exact nature and extent of these effects in humans are not well-documented due to limited research.
7. Is α-PPP safe for human consumption?
- α-PPP is not approved for medical use and is considered a recreational drug. It poses risks to human health, including the potential for addiction and adverse health effects. Its safety for human consumption is a subject of concern.
8. Is there a recommended dosage for α-PPP?
- There is no safe or recommended dosage for α-PPP, as it is not a regulated or approved substance. Using it can be dangerous and illegal in many places.
9. Can α-PPP be detected in drug tests?
- Yes, α-PPP can be detected in drug tests designed to identify synthetic stimulants. If you are subject to drug testing, it is essential to be aware of the substances you are consuming.
- Staack RF, Maurer HH (June 2005). “Metabolism of novel psychoactive substances”. In the journal Current Drug Metabolism, this study explores the intricate metabolic pathways of designer drugs commonly abused. The research delves into the biochemistry behind these substances (doi: 10.2174/1389200054021825; PMID 15975043).
- In a study published in Journal of Chromatography. B (November 2003), Springer D, Fritschi G, and Maurer HH investigate the metabolism and toxicological detection of alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) and its derivative 4′-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2003.07.008; PMID 14581066).
- Gannon BM, Galindo KI, Mesmin MP, Sulima A, Rice KC, and Collins GT conducted research in May 2018, examining the relative reinforcing effects of second-generation synthetic cathinones in rats. Their study, published in Neuropharmacology, investigates the acquisition of self-administration and dose-response curves (doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.08.018; PMC 5809320; PMID 28811192).
- Maurer HH, Kraemer T, Springer D, and Staack RF’s April 2004 study in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring provides a comprehensive synopsis of the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and hepatic metabolism of designer drugs belonging to the amphetamine, piperazine, and pyrrolidinophenone classes (doi: 10.1097/00007691-200404000-00007; PMID 15228152).
- Meltzer PC, Butler D, Deschamps JR, and Madras BK’s February 2006 research, featured in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, delves into 1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-pentan-1-one (Pyrovalerone) analogues, which represent a promising category of monoamine uptake inhibitors (doi: 10.1021/jm050797a; PMC 2602954; PMID 16480278).
- In March 2019, Ray A, Chitre NM, Daphney CM, Blough BE, Canal CE, and Murnane KS conducted a study examining the effects of the second-generation “bath salt” cathinone, alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), on behavior and monoamine neurochemistry in male mice. Their findings are published in Psychopharmacology (doi: 10.1007/s00213-018-5044-z; PMC 6443494; PMID 30276421).