Ethylone, a synthetic compound often categorized as a designer drug and research chemical, has gained prominence recently. With its increasing popularity, many online sellers have emerged, offering Ethylone for sale. While some of these vendors claim to provide a reliable and safe source for researchers, a critical review of these sellers raises significant concerns.
One of the primary issues with Ethylone research chemical sellers is the lack of regulatory oversight. Ethylone is not approved for human consumption, and its legal status varies from country to country. This ambiguity creates a breeding ground for unscrupulous sellers who exploit legal loopholes to market their products. Researchers seeking to buy Ethylone online are at risk of encountering questionable vendors, making it imperative to exercise caution.
Additionally, these online sellers’ quality and purity of Ethylone remains dubious. Researchers depend on accurate and consistent compounds for their experiments, but the lack of standardized production processes within the research chemical industry makes it challenging to ensure product quality. Substandard Ethylone can lead to erroneous results, jeopardizing the integrity of scientific research.
Furthermore, the marketing tactics employed by some Ethylone sellers are ethically questionable. They often use misleading terminology, such as “legal high” or “bath salts,” to attract unsuspecting buyers, blurring the line between scientific research and recreational drug use. This can harm the reputation of legitimate researchers seeking to advance scientific knowledge.
- 1 SUMMARY
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 Dosage
- 7 Legal status
- 8 FAQ
- 8.1 1. What is Ethylone?
- 8.2 2. Is Ethylone Legal?
- 8.3 3. What Are the Effects of Ethylone?
- 8.4 4. How Is Ethylone Used?
- 8.5 5. Are There Any Health Risks Associated with Ethylone?
- 8.6 6. Is Ethylone Addictive?
- 8.7 7. What Precautions Should I Take When Using Ethylone?
- 8.8 8. Can Ethylone Cause Psychosis?
- 8.9 9. Is Ethylone Similar to MDMA or Other Substances?
- 9 References
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone, known by various names such as Ethylone, MDEC, and βk-MDEA, belongs to the cathinone class, functioning as a synthetic entactogen and stimulant. Notably, it represents the β-keto analogue of MDEA, often referred to as “Eve.”
In the realm of designer drugs, Ethylone frequently appears in street markets, often alongside other cathinones like butylone or 3-MMC. It is often used as a substitute or counterfeit for MDMA and methylone, particularly as methylone’s availability has diminished within the research chemicals market. However, it is crucial to acknowledge that despite the behavioural and pharmacological similarities among ethylone, MDMA, and methylone, their subjective effects are not identical.
Ethylone has a relatively brief history of human consumption and is generally considered to be less potent when compared to its counterpart, methylone. Furthermore, it tends to exhibit more conventional stimulant-like effects than entactogenic ones. This unique profile underscores the need for caution and meticulous research when exploring the properties and effects of ethylene.
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID20894842|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||221.256 g·mol−1|
Ethylone, also known as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone, falls within the cathinone family, a group of synthetic molecules. Cathinones resemble amphetamines, featuring a phenethylamine core composed of a phenyl ring linked to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain, along with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Ethylone, like other cathinones, belongs to the category of alpha-methylated phenethylamines, akin to amphetamines. However, what sets cathinone apart is the inclusion of a ketone functional group (a carbonyl group at Rβ).
Ethylone is characterized by an ethyl substitution at RN, a feature it shares with substances like MDEA, 4-MEC, and certain other stimulants and entactogens. Moreover, ethylone possesses substitutions at R3 and R4 on the phenyl ring, where oxygen groups are introduced. These oxygen groups are integrated into a methylenedioxy ring via a methylene chain. Notably, Ethylone shares this methylenedioxy ring with compounds such as MDA, MDAI, and MDMA.
Ethylone functions as a dual-action compound, acting both as a reuptake inhibitor and a releasing agent for the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. These neurotransmitters play pivotal roles in governing feelings of pleasure, reward, motivation, and focus. Ethylone achieves this by impeding the reuptake and reabsorption of these neurotransmitters after they have fulfilled their role in transmitting neural impulses. This inhibition allows these neurotransmitters to accumulate and be recycled, leading to physically stimulating and euphoric effects.
In contrast to methylone, ethylone exhibits a notably lower affinity for the serotonin transporter, which has a lower affinity than MDMA. However, its affinity for the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters remains similar. These pharmacological distinctions relative to methylone result in several key differences. Ethylone is less potent in dosage, offers a more balanced influence on catecholaminergic effects than serotonergic ones, and resembles a reuptake inhibitor like methylphenidate more than a releasing agent like amphetamine. Nevertheless, it’s important to note that ethylene still retains significant releasing capabilities.
Disclaimer: The following effects are derived from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a compilation of anecdotal user accounts and the personal observations of contributors to PsychonautWiki. These effects should be approached with a healthy dose of scepticism.
Notably, these effects may not manifest consistently or predictably, with a greater likelihood of experiencing the full range of effects at higher doses. Furthermore, it’s crucial to recognize that elevated doses may heighten the risk of adverse outcomes, including addiction, severe harm, or even fatality ☠.
- Spontaneous Physical Sensations: The physical sensation induced by ethylene can be characterized as a moderate to intense euphoric tingling that envelops the entire body. This sensation can become overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses, maintaining a steady presence that intensifies as the peak is reached.
- Stimulation: Ethylone is commonly recognized for its robust stimulation and energy-boosting effects. This stimulation encourages physical activities like running, climbing, and dancing, making it a popular choice for festivals and raves. This stimulation can become pronounced at higher doses, leading to jaw clenching, involuntary bodily tremors, and vibrations, resulting in a noticeable lack of motor control.
- Vibrating Vision: High doses of ethylene may cause rapid, involuntary wiggling of the eyeballs, leading to blurred and temporarily unfocused vision—a phenomenon called nystagmus.
- Dehydration: Ethylone often leads to sensations of dry mouth and dehydration due to increased heart rate and a strong urge to engage in physically demanding activities. To avoid overhydration, users are advised to sip water cautiously, especially when active in hot environments.
- Difficulty Urinating: Higher doses of ethylone can temporarily impede urination. This effect is harmless and attributed to the release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) by ethylone, which regulates urination. Warming the genital area with a hot flannel can alleviate this issue.
- Temperature Regulation Suppression
- Tactile Enhancement
- Increased Heart Rate
- Increased Perspiration
- Increased Blood Pressure
- Teeth Grinding: The degree of teeth grinding associated with ethylene is typically less intense than that induced by MDMA.
- Cognitive Euphoria: Ethylone is known for producing intense emotional euphoria and feelings of happiness, largely attributable to the release of serotonin and dopamine. While it shares similarities with the euphoria of amphetamines and mephedrone, it differs from MDMA’s euphoric experience.
- Empathy, Love, and Sociability Enhancement: Ethylone elicits distinct and potent effects related to empathy and sociability. However, these effects are typically less pronounced and therapeutic than those of MDMA. They manifest more internally, resulting in feelings of love and empathy that may not necessarily compel outward expression.
- Time Distortion: Ethylone often induces a strong sense of time compression, accelerating the perception of time.
- Thought Acceleration
- Analysis Enhancement
- Increased Libido
- Increased Music Appreciation
- After the stimulant experience subsides, individuals may experience a “comedown” characterized by negative and uncomfortable effects, often attributed to neurotransmitter depletion. These aftereffects can include:
- Cognitive Fatigue
- Motivation Suppression
- Thought Deceleration
Disclaimer: The available information regarding recreational ethylene usage’s toxicity and long-term health effects remains limited in the scientific literature, and the precise toxic dosage remains unknown. This knowledge gap is primarily due to the relatively scant history of human consumption of methylone. Anecdotal reports from individuals within the community who have experimented with ethylene suggest that there have been no reported negative health effects associated with trying this substance at low to moderate doses, used sparingly. However, it’s important to emphasize that no guarantees can be made regarding individual reactions.
It is strongly advised that individuals practice harm-reduction strategies when using this substance.
Dependence and Abuse Potential:
Similar to other stimulants, chronic ethylene use may be moderately addictive, posing a notable risk of abuse and the potential for psychological dependence in certain users. Once addiction has taken hold, users may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms upon sudden cessation of use.
Prolonged and repeated use of ethylene can lead to the development of tolerance, necessitating increasingly larger doses to achieve the same effects. Tolerance reduction generally takes 3 to 7 days to halve and 1 to 2 weeks to return to baseline, provided further consumption is avoided. Notably, ethylone induces cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, diminishing the effects of other stimulants following ethylone use.
The prolonged and high-dosage misuse of stimulants, including ethylone, may potentially trigger stimulant psychosis, characterized by symptoms such as paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions. Approximately 5–15% of users may fail to completely recover from abuse-induced psychosis, according to research on amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse. Antipsychotic medications have been found effective in treating acute amphetamine psychosis. Importantly, therapeutic use rarely leads to psychosis.
It’s important to recognize that while many drugs may be safe when used alone, they can become dangerous or life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following list highlights some common combinations with potential dangers, although it may not encompass all possible interactions. Independent research is strongly recommended to ensure the safety of combining two or more substances before consumption.
- Stimulants: Combining ethylone with other stimulants can significantly elevate heart rate and blood pressure, posing potential risks.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH: These highly stimulating compounds should be strictly avoided in combination with ethylene, as they may lead to excessive stimulation, heart strain, increased blood pressure, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and extreme cases of heart failure.
- Alcohol: Combining alcohol with stimulants can be hazardous, as stimulants can mask the depressant effects of alcohol, potentially leading to over-intoxication, blackouts, and severe respiratory depression. If mixed, users should exercise strict moderation.
- DXM: Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibitory effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, which may increase the risk of panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome when combined with serotonin releasers.
- MDMA: Ethylone may enhance the neurotoxic effects of MDMA, leading to increased blood pressure, heart strain, and cardiotoxicity.
- MXE: Reports suggest that combining ethylone with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives: Combining ethylone with dissociatives carries a risk of delusions, mania, and psychosis, which may be exacerbated when these substances are used together.
- Tramadol: Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold, and combining it with stimulants like ethylone may further increase this risk.
- Cocaine: This combination may place additional strain on the heart.
Serotonin Syndrome Risk:
Combining ethylene with certain substances can result in dangerously elevated serotonin levels, leading to serotonin syndrome—a condition requiring immediate medical attention and potentially fatal if left untreated. Substances posing a risk include MAOIs, serotonin releasers (e.g., MDMA), SSRIs, SNRIs, and 5-HTP.
|Light||75 – 150 mg|
|Common||150 – 225 mg|
|Strong||225 – 325 mg|
|Heavy||325 mg +|
|Total||2 – 4 hours|
|Onset||15 – 45 minutes|
|Peak||60 – 90 minutes|
|Offset||60 – 120 minutes|
|After effects||2 – 12 hours|
Brazil: The possession, production, and sale of Ethylone are illegal in Brazil, as stipulated by Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
China: Since October 2015, China has classified Ethylone as a controlled substance.
Germany: Ethylone has been categorized as a controlled substance under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) since December 13, 2014. Its manufacture, possession, import, export, purchase, sale, procurement, and distribution without a license are strictly prohibited.
Sweden: Ethylone has been a controlled substance in Sweden since 1992.
Switzerland: Ethylone is identified as a controlled substance, specifically listed under Verzeichnis D in Switzerland.
United Kingdom: Ethylone is classified as a Class B drug in the United Kingdom, falling under the cathinone catch-all clause.
United States: Ethylone is not scheduled in the United States. However, it could be considered an analogue of methylone or MDMA, which may bring it within the purview of the Federal Analog Act.
1. What is Ethylone?
Ethylone, or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone, is a synthetic compound in the cathinone family. It is often categorized as a designer drug with stimulant and entactogenic properties.
2. Is Ethylone Legal?
The legal status of Ethylone varies by country. It is illegal in some countries, while it may be unregulated or subject to specific analogue laws in others. It’s crucial to check your local laws and regulations before obtaining or using Ethylone.
3. What Are the Effects of Ethylone?
Ethylone can induce a range of effects, including euphoria, increased energy, stimulation, enhanced tactile sensations, and feelings of empathy. These effects are similar to those of other stimulants and entactogens.
4. How Is Ethylone Used?
Ethylone is typically consumed orally but can also be snorted or administered through other routes. Users often take it in powder or crystalline form. The dosage and mode of use should be approached with caution.
5. Are There Any Health Risks Associated with Ethylone?
Due to limited scientific research, the long-term health effects of Ethylone use remain largely unknown. However, like other stimulants, it may pose risks like addiction, cardiovascular issues, and psychological dependence. Combining Ethylone with other substances can also be dangerous.
6. Is Ethylone Addictive?
Ethylone has the potential for psychological dependence and addiction, especially with chronic use. Users may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms if they stop using the substance abruptly.
7. What Precautions Should I Take When Using Ethylone?
If you choose to use Ethylone, it’s essential to practice harm reduction. This includes starting with a low dose, staying hydrated (but not overhydrating), and avoiding mixing it with other substances, especially alcohol. Responsible use and knowing the risks are key.
8. Can Ethylone Cause Psychosis?
Like other stimulants, prolonged and high-dosage use of Ethylone can potentially lead to stimulant-induced psychosis. Symptoms may include paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. It’s crucial to use Ethylone responsibly to minimize these risks.
9. Is Ethylone Similar to MDMA or Other Substances?
Ethylone shares some similarities with MDMA (Ecstasy) regarding its entactogenic effects but is not identical. It may also be compared to other stimulants, such as amphetamines. However, each substance has its unique properties and effects.
- Cozzi, N. V., Sievert, M. K., Shulgin, A. T., Jacob, P., Ruoho, A. E. (17 September 1999). “Inhibition of plasma membrane monoamine transporters by beta-ketoamphetamines”. This research, published in the European Journal of Pharmacology, explores the impact of beta-keto amphetamines on plasma membrane monoamine transporters. Read More
- Nagai, F., Nonaka, R., Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, K. (22 March 2007). “The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain”. This study, published in the European Journal of Pharmacology, investigates how non-medically used psychoactive drugs affect monoamine neurotransmission in the rat brain. Read More
- Simmler, L., Buser, T., Donzelli, M., Schramm, Y., Dieu, L.-H., Huwyler, J., Chaboz, S., Hoener, M., Liechti, M. (January 2013). “Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro: Pharmacology of cathinones”. This research, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, provides a pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro. Read More
- Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., Ling, W. (21 January 2009). Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, ed. “Treatment for amphetamine psychosis”. This Cochrane Database review explores treatments for amphetamine psychosis. Read More
- Hofmann, F. G. (1983). A handbook on drug and alcohol abuse: the biomedical aspects (2nd ed ed.). This handbook provides comprehensive information on drug and alcohol abuse, particularly focusing on biomedical aspects.
- FDA Label for Tramadol – This FDA label contains important information about tramadol, a medication sometimes used for pain management.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). “Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol”. This study examines the occurrence of seizures with tramadol use. Read More
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). “Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity”. This article discusses the interactions between monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics, and serotonin toxicity. Read More
- ANVISA RDC 130/2016 – This document (in Portuguese) outlines regulations from the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) regarding controlled substances.
- “关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知” (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. This notice (in Chinese) discusses the regulation of non-medical narcotic and psychotropic substances by the China Food and Drug Administration.
- German Narcotics Act – Anlage I BtMG (in German) – The German Narcotics Act classifies controlled substances in Anlage I. This link provides access to the official document (in German).
- German Narcotics Act Amendment (in German) – This document outlines the 28th amendment to the German Narcotics Act.
- German Narcotics Act – § 29 BtMG (in German) – Section 29 of the German Narcotics Act discusses the penalties for violations.
- Swedish Legislation on Ethylone (in Swedish) – Access information on the Swedish legal status of Ethylone.
- Swiss Federal Chancellery – Controlled Substances (in German) – This page provides information on controlled substances, including Ethylone.
- UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010 – This UK legislation outlines amendments to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, including the classification of controlled substances.