When considering the purchase of research chemicals like 3-MMC online, it is crucial to exercise caution and scrutinize the credibility of the seller or vendor. The online marketplace for designer drugs and research chemicals has expanded significantly in recent years, and while some vendors operate with integrity, others may engage in questionable practices.
One of the primary concerns when buying 3-MMC or similar substances online is the authenticity and quality of the product. Reputable sellers prioritize the purity and accuracy of their products, ensuring that they adhere to safety and quality standards. However, not all vendors share this commitment, and there have been instances of misrepresentation or adulteration in the research chemical market. Therefore, potential buyers should thoroughly research a seller’s reputation, customer reviews, and any available third-party testing data to gauge the reliability of their products.
Furthermore, the legality of 3-MMC varies by location, and responsible sellers should adhere to regional regulations. It is important to verify that the vendor complies with local laws and regulations concerning the sale of such substances. Purchasing from vendors prioritising legal and ethical practices is crucial to avoid legal repercussions.
Another aspect to consider is the vendor’s transparency regarding the risks associated with 3-MMC. Research chemicals can have unpredictable effects, and vendors should provide comprehensive information about potential risks and harm reduction strategies to ensure the safety of their customers.
The online market for research chemicals like 3-MMC is fraught with reputable and questionable vendors. Potential buyers must thoroughly research a seller’s reputation, product quality, adherence to legal regulations, and transparency regarding potential risks. Prioritizing these factors is crucial to ensure a safe and responsible purchase of research chemicals.
- 1 SUMMARY
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Reagent results
- 6 Toxicity
- 7 Dosage
- 8 Legal status
- 9 FAQ
- 10 References
3-Methylmethcathinone, commonly called 3-MMC or metaphedrone, is a relatively new stimulant-entactogen substance in the cathinone class. Structurally akin to mephedrone (4-MMC), 3-MMC’s full mechanism of action remains under-researched, but it is known to involve the release of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
This compound emerged on the online research chemical market shortly after the prohibition of the widely popular mephedrone. Its initial appearance can be traced back to Europe in 2012. 3-MMC is a notable example of a contemporary designer drug deliberately designed to mimic or replace its recently regulated precursors’ functional and structural aspects.
Subjective effects associated with 3-MMC encompass stimulation, anxiety alleviation, reduced inhibitions, heightened empathy and sociability, relaxation, increased libido, and euphoria. These effects are often likened to those induced by mephedrone, sometimes described as a blend of MDMA and cocaine. However, it is noted to be slightly less entactogenic and more stimulating than mephedrone, with reports of increased side effects. Like mephedrone and cocaine, it can lead to compulsive redosing and misuse due to its potent yet short-lived euphoric rush. Typically, it is administered through insufflation, although oral and injection routes have been observed.
Despite its popularity, there is limited available data regarding the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-MMC, and it lacks an extensive history of human use. Preliminary evidence suggests chronic use, characterized by high doses and repeated administration, may carry potential neurotoxic and cardiotoxic risks. Overuse is reported to result in symptoms akin to serotonin depletion.
Given these uncertainties, it is strongly recommended that individuals exercise harm-reduction practices when considering this substance to mitigate potential risks and adverse effects.
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||177.247 g·mol−1|
3-MMC, also known as 3-methylmethcathinone, falls within the cathinone class, a subgroup of amphetamines characterized by a core amphetamine structure. This structure consists of a phenyl ring linked to an amino (NH2) group via an ethyl chain and an additional methyl substitution at Rα.
Cathinones, specifically β-keto-amphetamines, are set apart by a ketone substitution on the beta carbon of the amphetamine skeleton. 3-MMC bears two methyl substitutions on its cathinone framework: one at R3 of the phenyl ring and another at the nitrogen group RN.
Regarding structural comparison, it closely resembles mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), differing only in the placement of the methyl group at R4 instead of R3.
3-MMC is a chiral compound with a stereocenter at R2 within the propane side-chain. This leads to the existence of two enantiomers: R-3-MMC and S-3-MMC. The S form is believed to be more potent than the R form, although further research is needed to confirm this.
The hydrochloride salt form of 3-MMC appears as a white crystalline powder. It possesses a melting point of 193.2 ± 0.2°C (for the hydrochloride salt) and a boiling point of 280.5 ± 23.0°C at 760 mm Hg. Solubility characteristics include sparingly soluble in PBS and slightly in ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide.
Because there is a shortage of research on this substance, any discourse about its pharmacology is speculative and grounded in its structure and the observed subjective effects shared with other entactogens and stimulants like mephedrone, amphetamine, and 2-FMA.
3-MMC likely operates as both a dopamine and norepinephrine-releasing agent. This means it may effectively heighten the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters, namely norepinephrine and dopamine, within the brain. This is achieved by binding to and partially obstructing the transporter proteins responsible for their removal from the synaptic cleft. Consequently, dopamine and norepinephrine can accumulate in the brain, ultimately leading to stimulating and euphoric effects.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below are based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of contributors to the Subjective Effect Index (SEI) on PsychonautWiki. These effects should be regarded with a degree of scepticism.
It’s important to note that these effects may not manifest consistently or predictably. However, higher doses are more likely to produce the full range of effects, and increasing the dose raises the risk of adverse effects, including addiction, severe injury, or even death ☠.
- Stimulation: 3-MMC is known for its extreme stimulation and energy boost. It often encourages physical activities like dancing or running, making it popular at parties and raves. Higher doses can lead to involuntary jaw clenching, body shakes, and vibrations, making it challenging to stay still.
- Spontaneous Bodily Sensations: Users often report a euphoric tingling sensation throughout their entire body, which can become intensely pleasurable at higher doses. This sensation steadily increases from onset to peak.
- Physical Euphoria: Responsible use of 3-MMC can lead to strong physical euphoria, promoting feelings of social and physical disinhibition.
- Tactile Enhancement: Users may experience heightened sensitivity to touch.
- Tactile Hallucinations: Some users may encounter tactile hallucinations.
- Bodily Control Enhancement: Improved control over bodily movements.
- Stamina Enhancement: Increased physical endurance.
- Temperature Regulation Suppression: Users may become less aware of temperature discomfort.
- Increased Bodily Temperature: 3-MMC can lead to a rise in body temperature.
- Decreased Bodily Temperature: In some cases, users may experience lowered body temperature.
- Vasoconstriction: Narrowing of blood vessels can occur.
- Abnormal Heartbeat: Irregular heart rhythms may be observed.
- Increased Heart Rate: The heart rate can become elevated.
- Increased Perspiration: Profuse sweating may occur.
- Nausea: Nausea is common during the onset and at higher doses.
- Headaches: Some users may experience headaches.
- Dehydration: Dehydration can occur due to increased sweat and activity.
- Dry Mouth: Users may experience dry mouth.
- Appetite Suppression: A reduced appetite is often reported.
- Muscle Contractions: Muscle contractions can occur.
- Pupil Dilation: The pupils may dilate.
- Increased Libido: Users may have a strong increase in libido, potentially leading to compulsive redosing.
- Orgasm Suppression: Some users may find it challenging to achieve orgasm.
- Vibrating Vision: Rapid eye movement (nystagmus) may cause blurry vision at high doses.
- Teeth Grinding: Euphoria can lead to jaw clenching, sometimes called “gurning.”
- Shortness of Breath: Due to vasoconstriction, users may experience difficulty breathing.
- Seizure: Seizures are rare but may occur, especially with heavy or repeated dosing in physically demanding conditions.
- Anxiety Suppression: Feelings of anxiety may decrease.
- Disinhibition: Users may feel more uninhibited.
- Empathy, Affection, and Sociability Enhancement: Enhanced social and emotional connections are common.
- Cognitive Euphoria: Users often experience a sense of mental euphoria.
- Increased Music Appreciation: Music may be more enjoyable.
- Compulsive Redosing: Users may have the urge to redose.
- Immersion Enhancement: A heightened sense of immersion in activities or experiences.
- Motivation Enhancement: Improved motivation and focus.
- Thought Acceleration: Thinking may become faster.
- Delirium & Confusion: These effects typically occur at high doses and are associated with temperature dysregulation and overheating.
- Time Compression: Users may perceive time passing more quickly.
- Enhancements: Visual enhancements include colour enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement.
- Suppressions: Visual suppressions may manifest as double vision, distortions, tracers, and symmetrical texture repetition.
- Auditory Enhancement: Users may experience enhanced auditory perception.
- Auditory Hallucination: Auditory hallucinations are possible.
- Anxiety: Anxiety may increase during the comedown phase.
- Cognitive Fatigue: Mental fatigue is common after the peak effects.
- Depression: Feelings of depression can occur during the comedown.
- Irritability: Users may become irritable.
- Motivation Suppression: Motivation levels may decrease.
- Thought Deceleration: Thinking may slow down.
- Wakefulness: Difficulty falling asleep may be experienced during the comedown.
Exposing compounds to the reagents gives a colour change which is indicative of the compound under test.
|Yellowish||No reaction||No reaction||Orange – Yellow||Yellowish||No reaction||No reaction||No reaction||Blue||Purple ring/brown|
The long-term effects of 3-MMC remain largely unexplored due to limited research, making it challenging to provide comprehensive information about potential risks and harm associated with its use.
Given the uncertainties surrounding its long-term effects, individuals are strongly advised to practice harm reduction when using this substance.
Dependence and Abuse Potential Similar to other stimulants, chronic use of 3-MMC can lead to a high potential for addiction and psychological dependence in some users. Those who become addicted may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation. It is suggested that 3-MMC may be more addictive than mephedrone.
Tolerance to many of 3-MMC’s effects develops with repeated and prolonged use, necessitating larger doses to achieve the same results. Tolerance reduction typically takes about 3 to 7 days to reach half of its initial level and 1 to 2 weeks to return to baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Furthermore, 3-MMC exhibits cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, diminishing the effects of other stimulants when used subsequently.
Dangerous Interactions Warning: Combining psychoactive substances can be risky and potentially life-threatening. Some interactions that are safe when used alone can become hazardous when combined with other substances. While the list below outlines known dangerous interactions, it may not cover all possibilities. Independent research, such as consulting reliable sources like Google, DuckDuckGo, or PubMed, is essential to ensure the safety of combining multiple substances. Some interactions may be sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH: Combining these compounds with 3-MMC should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and cardiovascular strain, potentially resulting in high blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and even heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol: Mixing alcohol with stimulants can be hazardous as stimulants can mask the depressant effects of alcohol. This can lead to accidental over-intoxication, blackouts, and severe respiratory depression. If combined, users should strictly limit their alcohol consumption per hour.
- DXM: Combinations with DXM should be avoided because DXM inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, increasing the risk of panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome when combined with serotonin releasers (e.g., MDMA, methylone, mephedrone). Blood pressure should be monitored, and strenuous physical activity should be avoided.
- MDMA: Combining MDMA with other stimulants may intensify neurotoxic effects, increase blood pressure, and strain the heart (cardiotoxicity).
- MXE: Reports suggest that combining MXE with 3-MMC may raise blood pressure dangerously and elevate the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives: Both classes of substances carry risks of delusions, mania, and psychosis, which may be amplified when combined.
- Stimulants: Combining 3-MMC with other stimulants like cocaine can excessively elevate heart rate and blood pressure, posing potential dangers.
- Tramadol: Tramadol can lower the seizure threshold, and combining it with stimulants may further increase this risk.
Serotonin Syndrome Risk Combinations with certain substances can lead to dangerously high serotonin levels, potentially resulting in serotonin syndrome. This medical emergency requires immediate attention and can be fatal if untreated. Such substances include:
- MAOIs: Examples include banisteriopsis caapi, Syrian rue, phenelzine, selegiline, and moclobemide.
- Serotonin Releasers: MDMA, 4-FA, methamphetamine, methylone, and αMT.
- SSRIs: Such as citalopram and sertraline.
- SNRIs: Such as tramadol and venlafaxine.
- 5-HTP: Combining 3-MMC with substances that affect serotonin levels can pose a risk of serotonin syndrome.
|Light||50 – 150 mg|
|Common||150 – 250 mg|
|Strong||250 – 350 mg|
|Heavy||350 mg +|
|Total||4 – 6 hours|
|Onset||10 – 30 minutes|
|Come up||30 – 60 minutes|
|Peak||2 – 3 hours|
|Offset||1 – 1.5 hours|
|After effects||2 – 4 hours|
Austria: The possession, production, and sale of 3-MMC are prohibited under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
Brazil: 3-MMC is illegal, and its possession, production, and sale are prohibited, as listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
China: Since October 2015, 3-MMC, along with many other chemicals, has been banned in China. This ban has made it increasingly challenging to obtain these chemicals, as much of the manufacturing was previously carried out by Chinese chemical companies.
Czech Republic: 3-MMC is banned in the Czech Republic.
Germany: 3-MMC is classified under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of December 13, 2014. Manufacturing, possessing, importing, exporting, buying, selling, procuring, or dispensing it without a license is illegal.
Sweden: 3-MMC is categorized as a narcotic substance.
Switzerland: 3-MMC can be considered a controlled substance as a defined derivative of Cathinone under Verzeichnis E point 1. It is legal for scientific or industrial use.
Turkey: 3-MMC is classified as a drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.
The Netherlands: Since October 2021, 3-MMC has been classified as a “List 2” drug, rendering it illegal.
United Kingdom: 3-MMC is classified as a Class B drug in the United Kingdom due to the cathinone catch-all clause.
United States: While 3-MMC is not formally listed, the DEA categorizes it as a Schedule I Positional Isomer.
1. What is 3-MMC?
3-MMC, or 3-methylmethcathinone, is a synthetic substance in the cathinone class. Cathinones are a sub-category of amphetamines known for their stimulant effects.
2. How does 3-MMC work?
The exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it is believed to act as a dopamine and norepinephrine-releasing agent. This means it increases the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to stimulating and euphoric effects.
3. What are the effects of 3-MMC?
The effects of 3-MMC can include stimulation, euphoria, increased sociability, enhanced empathy, and increased libido. Some users describe it as a combination of MDMA and cocaine effects.
4. Is 3-MMC legal?
The legality of 3-MMC varies by country. In some places, it is classified as an illegal substance; in others, it may be unregulated or controlled for scientific or industrial use. Always check your local laws before obtaining or using 3-MMC.
5. Is 3-MMC safe to use?
The safety of 3-MMC is not well-established, and its long-term effects are largely unknown. Like many research chemicals, it should be approached with caution. Harm reduction practices should always be followed when using any substance of this nature.
6. Can 3-MMC be addictive?
3-MMC has a high potential for abuse and can lead to psychological dependence when used chronically. Users may experience cravings and withdrawal effects if they suddenly stop using it.
7. What are the potential side effects of 3-MMC?
Side effects can include anxiety, headaches, nausea, muscle contractions, pupil dilation, teeth grinding, and, in extreme cases, seizures. Always start with a low dose to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
8. How should 3-MMC be used safely?
If you use 3-MMC, start with a low dose, use harm-reduction practices, and avoid excessive redosing. Stay hydrated and be aware of your body’s response to the substance.
- Adamowicz, P., Gieroń, J., Gil, D., Lechowicz, W., Skulska, A., Tokarczyk, B. (May 2016). “Interpreting Blood Concentrations of 3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) – A Study of 95 Cases.” Published in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology. This research provides insights into the analysis and interpretation of blood concentrations of 3-MMC.
- World Health Organization, Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (October 2022). “Critical Review Report: 3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC)” (PDF). This report by the World Health Organization offers a critical review of 3-MMC, shedding light on its properties and effects.
- Assi, S., Gulyamova, N., Kneller, P., Osselton, D. (May 2017). “The Effects and Toxicity of Cathinones from Users’ Perspectives: A Qualitative Study.” This qualitative study, published in Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, explores the effects and toxicity of cathinone, including 3-MMC, from the users’ perspective.
- Urban Dictionary: Gurning. You can check out this urban slang dictionary entry for a lighthearted take on the phenomenon of “gurning” associated with substances like 3-MMC.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). “Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol.” Published in the Journal of Medical Toxicology, this study discusses the dose-independent occurrence of seizures associated with tramadol, which may be relevant to understanding risks associated with substances like 3-MMC.
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). “Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Opioid Analgesics, and Serotonin Toxicity.” This article in the British Journal of Anaesthesia discusses serotonin toxicity and the interactions of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, which can be relevant when considering the safety of substances like 3-MMC.
- National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa), Brazil. “Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.” This document outlines the regulations regarding substances like 3-MMC in Brazil.
- China Food and Drug Administration. “关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知.” This Chinese document discusses the regulation of non-medicinal psychotropic substances, including 3-MMC.
- Czech Republic Ministry of Health. “Zákon č. 463/2013 Sb.” This document outlines the legal regulations in the Czech Republic, including the ban on 3-MMC.
- German Narcotics Act (BtMG). “Anlage I BtMG.” This official document in German outlines the classification and regulations of substances like 3-MMC in Germany.
- Bundesanzeiger Verlag. “Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften” (PDF). This German document discusses changes in regulations related to narcotics, including 3-MMC.
- Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. “§ 29 BtMG.” This German document outlines specific regulations within the Narcotics Act, including those about 3-MMC.
- Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA). “3-MMC – Läkemedelsverkets föreskrifter om förteckningar över narkotika.” This document from Sweden’s Medical Products Agency discusses the classification of 3-MMC.
- Swiss Federal Chancellery. “Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien.” This Swiss document discusses the classification of 3-MMC and its derivatives.
- Turkish Medicines and Medical Devices Agency. “Başbakanlık Mevzuatı Geliştirme ve Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü.” This Turkish document outlines regulations related to controlled substances like 3-MMC.
- The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010. This UK legal document discusses the classification of substances like 3-MMC in the United Kingdom.