MDPV (Methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is a powerful and potentially dangerous designer drug that has gained notoriety in recent years. While its sale and use are often restricted or banned in many countries due to its high potential for abuse and harmful side effects, some online sellers continue offering it as a research chemical. This raises significant concerns about the ethics and legality of these vendors.
Firstly, the availability of MDPV for sale online as a research chemical is troubling. Research chemicals are often marketed as substances intended for scientific purposes, but they are frequently abused recreationally. This misrepresentation by sellers can lead to serious health consequences for unsuspecting buyers who may not be aware of the risks associated with MDPV.
Furthermore, the quality and purity of MDPV purchased from online vendors could be more questionable. There is no guarantee that what is being sold as MDPV is the compound it claims to be, and contaminants or impurities in the product can pose significant health risks to users. The lack of regulation in this market makes it difficult for consumers to make informed decisions about their purchases.
Additionally, the continued availability of MDPV online perpetuates the problem of designer drugs in society. These substances are often chemically altered to evade legal regulations, making it difficult for authorities to keep up with new variations. Online vendors who sell MDPV as a research chemical contribute to the ongoing challenge of controlling the spread of these potentially dangerous drugs.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Effects
- 4 Legality
- 5 Documented fatalities
- 6 Overdose treatment
- 7 FAQ
- 7.1 1. What is MDPV?
- 7.2 2. Is MDPV legal?
- 7.3 3. What are the common street names for MDPV?
- 7.4 4. How is MDPV typically consumed?
- 7.5 5. What are the effects of MDPV use?
- 7.6 6. Are there any health risks associated with MDPV use?
- 7.7 7. Can MDPV be addictive?
- 7.8 8. Are there any legal consequences for MDPV possession or distribution?
- 7.9 9. Is there any medical use for MDPV?
- 7.10 10. How can I seek help for MDPV addiction?
- 7.11 11. Can MDPV use be dangerous or even fatal?
- 7.12 12. Is it safe to mix MDPV with other drugs or alcohol?
- 7.13 13. How long do the effects of MDPV last?
- 7.14 14. Can MDPV use lead to long-term health problems?
- 7.15 15. Is there a way to test for MDPV use in drug screenings?
- 8 References
This compound’s hydrochloride salt presents itself as an extremely fine crystalline powder that tends to absorb moisture and clump together, resembling powdered sugar in its appearance. Its coloration can vary, ranging from a pristine pure white to a slightly yellowish-tan hue, accompanied by a faint odor that becomes more pronounced as it takes on color. The presence of impurities is probable, primarily stemming from either pyrrolidine or alpha-dibrominated alkylphenones. These impurities will likely originate from excess pyrrolidine or incomplete amination during synthesis. They are responsible for the discoloration observed in the substance. They can give rise to an odor reminiscent of pyrrolidine or a bromine-like scent, intensifying upon exposure to air, moisture, or alkaline substances.
|Oral, insufflation, intravenous, rectal, vaporization|
|Legal status||AU: S9 (Prohibited substance)BR: Class F1 (Prohibited narcotics)CA: Schedule IDE: Anlage II (Authorized trade only, not prescriptible)UK: Class BUS: Schedule IIllegal in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine.|
|Excretion||Primarily urine (renal)|
|CAS Number||687603-66-3 |
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID90897461|
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) lacks any documented FDA-approved medical applications. Research has demonstrated its ability to induce strong reinforcing effects and compulsive self-administration in rats. This finding was corroborated by numerous documented cases of misuse and addiction in humans even before the animal experiments were conducted.
MDPV is the analog of pyrovalerone, which features a 3,4-methylenedioxy ring substitution. Pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, was initially utilized to address chronic fatigue and serve as an anorectic agent. However, its use led to problems related to abuse and dependence.
Several other substances share a similar chemical structure with MDPV, including α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (M-α-PPP), 3′,4′-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDP), and 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (α-PVP).
MDPV functions as a stimulant and has been documented to elicit effects akin to cocaine, methylphenidate, and amphetamines.
The primary psychological effects of MDPV typically endure for approximately 3 to 4 hours, followed by lingering aftereffects such as tachycardia, hypertension, and mild stimulation, which can persist for 6 to 8 hours. High doses have been associated with intense and prolonged panic attacks in individuals intolerant to stimulants. Additionally, there have been anecdotal accounts of psychosis resulting from sleep deprivation and addiction when administered at higher doses or with increased frequency. MDPV has also been consistently linked to the development of irresistible cravings for re-administration.
Various consumption methods have been reported, including oral ingestion, insufflation, smoking, rectal use, and intravenous administration. It is purportedly active at doses ranging from 3 to 5 mg, with typical doses falling within the 5 to 20 mg range.
Studies in mice have revealed that repeated exposure to MDPV induces anxiogenic effects and heightened aggressive behavior, a phenomenon previously observed in humans. Like MDMA, MDPV results in a quicker adaptation to repeated social isolation.
Furthermore, there is evidence of cross-sensitization between MDPV and cocaine. Both MDPV and cocaine, being psychostimulants, can reinstate drug-seeking behavior about each other, although relapse to drug-taking is generally more pronounced with the conditioning drug. Additionally, memories associated with MDPV take longer to extinguish in MDPV-treated mice. Moreover, a priming dose of cocaine in MDPV-treated mice triggers significant neuroplasticity, indicating a heightened susceptibility to cocaine abuse.
In the United Kingdom, following the report issued by the ACMD (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs) on substituted cathinone derivatives, MDPV falls under the classification of a Class B drug, as stipulated in The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010. Consequently, engaging in the sale, purchase, or possession of MDPV without the requisite license is deemed illegal.
MDPV is explicitly identified as a controlled substance in Finland, Denmark, and Sweden. Notably, in Sweden, a 33-year-old individual was sentenced to six years in prison by an appellate court, Hovrätt, for possessing 250 grams of MDPV acquired before the substance was criminalized.
Australia has also taken measures to prohibit MDPV. In Western Australia, it was banned under the Poisons Act 1964 and included in Appendix A Schedule 9 of the Poisons Act 1964 as of February 11, 2012. The Director of Public Prosecutions for Western Australia has announced severe penalties, including a maximum fine of $100,000 or 25 years’ imprisonment for those intending to sell or supply MDPV. Users face the risk of a $2000 fine or two years imprisonment, with charges applicable for possession, sale, supply, or intent to sell or supply.
In Canada, Health Minister Leona Aglukkaq declared on June 5, 2012, that MDPV would be categorized under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. This change came into effect on September 26, 2012.
MDPV is classified as a federally scheduled drug in the United States by the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration). On October 21, 2011, the DEA imposed a temporary one-year ban on MDPV, designating it as a Schedule I substance. Schedule I status is assigned to substances deemed to have a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted therapeutic use in the United States, and a lack of accepted safety guidelines for medical supervision.
Even before the federal ban in the United States, MDPV was already prohibited in Louisiana and Florida. Subsequently, Kentucky passed bill HB 121 on March 24, 2011, designating MDPV for other cathinones, as controlled substances within the state and establishing legal consequences for selling and possessing the drug.
New Jersey banned MDPV under Pamela’s Law, named after Pamela Schmidt, a Rutgers University student who tragically lost her life in March 2011, allegedly due to a user of MDPV. Subsequent toxicology reports did not detect “bath salts” in the perpetrator’s system.
Tennessee enacted a law on May 5, 2011, criminalizing the production, manufacturing, distribution, sale, offering for sale, or possession with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, sell, or offer for sale of any product containing MDPV.
Similarly, on July 6, 2011, the governor of Maine signed legislation imposing fines for possession and penalties for trafficking of MDPV.
Finally, on October 17, 2011, Ohio implemented a law prohibiting the sale and possession of synthetic drugs with stimulant effects on the central nervous system, including MDPV, which was misspelled as “methylenedioxypyrovalerone” in the legal text. Just four days after the enactment of this Ohio law, the DEA declared a national emergency ban on MDPV.
In another significant development, on December 8, 2011, under the Synthetic Drug Control Act, the U.S. House of Representatives voted to outlaw MDPV and other synthetic drugs previously available for legal sale in stores.
In April 2011, approximately two weeks after being reported as missing, two individuals in northwestern Pennsylvania were discovered deceased in a remote area on government-owned land. While the official cause of death for both Troy Johnson, aged 29, and Terry Sumrow, aged 28, was determined to be hypothermia, subsequent toxicology reports revealed the presence of MDPV in their systems. The county coroner noted that the quantity of MDPV ingested was not lethal but was sufficient to induce significant impairment. In their vehicle, containers of MDPV were discovered alongside spoons, hypodermic syringes, and paraphernalia associated with marijuana use. Additionally, in April 2011, an incident in Alton, Illinois, suggested a fatality resulting from an MDPV overdose.
In May 2011, the CDC documented a case of an individual who visited a hospital emergency department (ED) in Michigan following the use of “bath salts.” Unfortunately, the individual was pronounced dead upon arrival at the ED. The associates of the deceased individual reported his use of bath salts, and subsequent toxicology tests unveiled elevated levels of MDPV, along with traces of marijuana and prescription medications. Autopsy results identified MDPV toxicity as the primary contributing factor to the individual’s demise. There have also been reports of hemiplegia associated with MDPV use.
Between September 2009 and August 2013, nine European countries reported a total of 107 non-fatal incidents of intoxication and 99 deaths confirmed through analytical testing, all linked to the use of MDPV.
Physicians frequently employ anxiolytics, such as benzodiazepines, as a common approach to managing cases of MDPV overdose. This is done to mitigate the heightened drug-induced activity in the brain and the body. On occasion, when sedatives prove ineffective, general anesthesia may be utilized.
In emergency department settings, individuals experiencing severe hypertension, tachycardia, agitation, or seizures are typically administered large doses of lorazepam, typically in 2–4 mg increments intravenously or intramuscularly every 10–15 minutes. If this treatment proves ineffective, an alternative option is haloperidol. It’s worth noting that using beta blockers to address hypertension in such patients may lead to an unintended peripheral alpha-adrenergic effect, potentially causing a dangerous paradoxical increase in blood pressure.
Additionally, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has demonstrated efficacy in ameliorating persistent psychotic symptoms linked to repeated MDPV usage.
1. What is MDPV?
MDPV stands for Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, which is a synthetic stimulant drug. It belongs to a class of drugs known as cathinone and is chemically similar to other synthetic stimulants like bath salts. MDPV is known for its stimulant and euphoric effects.
2. Is MDPV legal?
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance in many countries, including the United States, where it is a Schedule I controlled substance. This means that it is illegal to manufacture, possess, or distribute MDPV for recreational use.
3. What are the common street names for MDPV?
MDPV is known by various street names, including “bath salts,” “Ivory Wave,” “Magic,” and “Super Coke.” These names can vary depending on the region.
4. How is MDPV typically consumed?
MDPV is most commonly consumed by snorting but can also be ingested orally, smoked, or injected. The method of consumption can influence the intensity and duration of its effects.
5. What are the effects of MDPV use?
MDPV use can lead to various effects, including increased alertness, euphoria, enhanced mood, and energy. However, it is also associated with severe side effects like anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, and, in some cases, aggressive behavior.
6. Are there any health risks associated with MDPV use?
Yes, MDPV use is associated with several health risks, including:
- Cardiovascular problems such as increased heart rate and blood pressure.
- Psychiatric effects include anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations.
- Addiction and dependence potential.
- Overdose, which can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention.
7. Can MDPV be addictive?
Yes, MDPV has a high potential for addiction. Frequent use can lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms when the drug is not consumed.
8. Are there any legal consequences for MDPV possession or distribution?
Yes, possessing, selling, or distributing MDPV is illegal in many countries and can result in criminal charges, including fines and imprisonment.
9. Is there any medical use for MDPV?
No, MDPV does not have any approved medical uses. It is considered a recreational drug and is not prescribed by healthcare professionals.
10. How can I seek help for MDPV addiction?
If you or someone you know is struggling with MDPV addiction, it is essential to seek professional help. Treatment options may include detoxification, counseling, therapy, and support groups. Contact a healthcare provider or a substance abuse treatment center for assistance.
11. Can MDPV use be dangerous or even fatal?
MDPV use can be hazardous and even fatal, particularly when taken in high doses or combined with other substances. Overdose can lead to severe medical complications, including cardiac arrest and organ failure.
12. Is it safe to mix MDPV with other drugs or alcohol?
No, it is not safe to mix MDPV with other drugs or alcohol. Combining MDPV with other substances can increase the risk of adverse effects, overdose, and unpredictable reactions.
13. How long do the effects of MDPV last?
The duration of MDPV effects can vary depending on the method of consumption, dose, and individual factors. Typically, the effects can last several hours, with the peak occurring within the first hour after use.
14. Can MDPV use lead to long-term health problems?
Prolonged use of MDPV can have serious long-term health consequences, including cardiovascular issues, psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairments, and addiction.
15. Is there a way to test for MDPV use in drug screenings?
MDPV can be detected in drug screenings but is not typically included in standard drug tests. Specific tests designed to detect synthetic cathinones may be required for MDPV detection.
Please note that MDPV is a dangerous and illegal substance that should be avoided. This FAQ is provided for informational purposes only and does not encourage or endorse using MDPV or any other illegal substances. If you or someone you know is struggling with substance abuse, seek help from a medical professional or addiction treatment center.
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