JWH-098 belongs to the naphthoylindole family and is classified as a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist. It represents the indole 2-methyl variant of a closely related compound, JWH-081. Notably, JWH-098 exhibits distinctive binding preferences for the CB1 and CB2 receptors compared to JWH-081. While JWH-081 displays approximately tenfold selectivity for CB1 over CB2, JWH-098 reverses this pattern. JWH-098 is about four times less potent at CB1 and nearly six times more potent at CB2 than JWH-081, resulting in a slight overall preference for CB2 binding. This underscores how introducing a methyl group at the indole 2 position within the naphthoylindole series enhances CB2 receptor affinity but often diminishes CB1 receptor binding.

IUPAC name
CAS Number316189-74-9
PubChem CID45272116
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID80185501
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass385.507 g·mol−1

Legal status

In the United States, all substances belonging to the 3-(1-naphthyl)indole class, including CB1 receptor agonists like JWH-098, are categorized as Schedule I Controlled Substances.
JWH-098 is prohibited in Russia, Sweden, and the UK despite a clear record of human consumption.


1. What is JWH-098?

JWH-098 is a synthetic compound classified as a cannabinoid receptor agonist. It belongs to the 3-(1-naphthyl)indole class and is known for interacting with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system.

2. How does JWH-098 work?

JWH-098 exerts its effects by binding to and activating cannabinoid receptors in the body. It primarily affects the CB1 and CB2 receptors, which play a role in regulating various physiological functions, including mood, pain perception, and immune response.

3. Is JWH-098 legal?

The legal status of JWH-098 varies by country and region. In the United States, JWH-098 is classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance. It is illegal in several other countries, including Russia, Sweden, and the UK. Always check your local laws and regulations before considering any use of this substance.

4. What are the potential effects of JWH-098?

JWH-098’s effects can be similar to those of natural cannabinoids found in cannabis, but they may vary in intensity and duration. These effects can include altered mood, relaxation, and changes in perception, among others.

5. Is JWH-098 safe to use?

The safety of JWH-098 is a subject of concern. It has not undergone the same rigorous testing and research as natural cannabinoids. Moreover, synthetic cannabinoids may have unpredictable and potentially harmful side effects. Therefore, using JWH-098 is discouraged due to these safety concerns.

6. Can JWH-098 be used for medical purposes?

There needs to be more scientific research on the medical potential of JWH-098. Its safety and efficacy for medical use have not been established, and it is not approved for medical treatments. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional and consider approved medications for specific medical conditions.

7. Are there any risks associated with JWH-098 use?

Using JWH-098 can be associated with various risks, including adverse health effects and legal consequences. These synthetic compounds may have unpredictable and harmful side effects that could be severe. Using illicit substances is not advisable.

8. Where can I find more information about JWH-098?

For additional information or inquiries about JWH-098, it is recommended to consult with healthcare professionals, pharmacologists, or trusted sources of scientific literature. Always prioritize your safety and well-being when considering any substance use.


  1. Anvisa’s Regulatory Control (2023-07-24): Anvisa, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency, issued RDC Nº 804, which outlines a list of substances under special control. This list includes narcotic, psychotropic, precursor, and other substances. The resolution was published in the Diário Oficial da União on July 25, 2023, and archived for reference. This regulatory update is significant in terms of controlling specific substances in Brazil.
  2. Research on Synthetic Cannabinoids (January 2005): Research conducted by Huffman JW, Zengin G, Wu MJ, Lu J, Hynd G, Bushell K, and others in January 2005 delves into the structural-activity relationships of 1-alkyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles in the context of cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. The study highlights the steric and electronic effects of naphthoyl substituents and the development of highly selective CB(2) receptor agonists. This research contributes to our understanding of synthetic cannabinoids and their interactions with specific receptors.
  3. United States Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 812): The United States Control Substances Act, specifically in Section 21 U.S.C. § 812, categorizes substances into schedules of controlled substances. This legislation is a vital legal framework for the classification and regulation of various substances, including those with potential psychoactive properties.
  4. Russian Government’s Resolution (December 31, 2009): The Russian Government issued a resolution on December 31, 2009, marked as № 1186, which introduced amendments to several government resolutions concerning the circulation of narcotic substances. This resolution is part of the legal framework governing the handling of controlled substances in Russia.
  5. Swedish Regulations: The Swedish författningssamling (official publication of Swedish statutes) likely contains regulations related to controlled substances in Sweden. These regulations are crucial for governing the use and handling of specific substances within the country.
  6. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2009 (UK): The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2009, an amendment to the existing UK drug legislation, is significant in the context of controlling substances. The order is part of the legal framework in the United Kingdom for managing substances with the potential for misuse.

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