MMDA-2, formally known as 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine, is a member of the psychedelic amphetamine class. It shares a close chemical kinship with substances like MMDA and MDA.
The pioneering synthesis of MMDA-2 is often attributed to Alexander Shulgin, a prominent figure in the realm of psychopharmacology. In his comprehensive book “PiHKAL,” Shulgin notes that the recommended dosage of MMDA-2 typically falls within the range of 25 to 50 milligrams, while its effects tend to persist for approximately 8 to 12 hours.
Shulgin’s observations reveal that MMDA-2 induces a range of effects, including heightened awareness, enhanced empathy, and visual alteration and distortion. However, it may also be accompanied by some side effects, such as gastrointestinal discomfort and loss of appetite. Shulgin even suggests that a dosage of 30 milligrams of MMDA-2 is akin to 80 milligrams of MDA and implies that experiencing adverse effects at this dose would be highly improbable.
Scientific studies have demonstrated that, in contrast to MMDA but in alignment with 6-methyl-MDA, MMDA-2 possesses limited potency in promoting the release of serotonin or dopamine. Consequently, it does not elicit amphetamine-like responses in animal drug discrimination experiments. Instead, it is probable that MMDA-2 predominantly operates as a pure 5-HT2 receptor agonist, akin to the DOx compound series, with the activation of the 5-HT2A receptor being responsible for its psychedelic effects.
MMDA-2 has, at times, been marketed as a designer drug in Japan.

IUPAC name
CAS Number23693-18-7
PubChem CID90966
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID20903968
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass209.245 g·mol−1


  • What is MMDA-2? MMDA-2, or 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine, is a psychedelic substance that belongs to the amphetamine class. It shares structural similarities with compounds like MMDA and MDA.
  • Who was the first to synthesize MMDA-2? Alexander Shulgin is often credited with being the first to synthesize MMDA-2, and he extensively documented its properties in his book “PiHKAL.”
  • What is the recommended dosage range for MMDA-2? According to Alexander Shulgin’s research, the suggested dosage range for MMDA-2 typically spans from 25 to 50 milligrams. The effects are expected to last for approximately 8 to 12 hours.
  • What effects does MMDA-2 produce? MMDA-2 is known to induce a range of effects, including heightened awareness, increased empathy, and visual alterations and distortions. It may also be associated with some side effects like gastrointestinal discomfort and loss of appetite.
  • How does MMDA-2 differ from MMDA in terms of serotonin and dopamine release? Scientific research has revealed that MMDA-2, unlike MMDA, is only weak at promoting the release of serotonin or dopamine. As a result, it does not produce amphetamine-like responses in animal studies.
  • What is the primary mechanism of action for MMDA-2’s psychedelic effects? MMDA-2 is likely to function as a pure 5-HT2 receptor agonist, particularly the 5-HT2A receptor, which is responsible for its psychedelic effects. This mechanism is similar to the action of compounds in the DOx series.
  • Has MMDA-2 been sold as a designer drug? Yes, MMDA-2 has been marketed as a designer drug in Japan. However, the use and distribution of such substances may be subject to legal regulations in different regions.
  • Is MMDA-2 safe for consumption? The safety of using MMDA-2 is not well-documented, and it is not approved for any medical or therapeutic purposes. Like all psychoactive substances, there are potential risks associated with its use, and responsible and informed decision-making is crucial.


  1. Ann Shulgin; Alexander Shulgin (1991). “PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story.” Published by Transform Press, this captivating work authored by Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin delves into their experiences with psychedelic compounds and the chemistry behind them. It continues to be a prominent resource in the field of psychopharmacology, offering a unique perspective on their journey.
  2. McKenna DJ, Guan XM, Shulgin AT (March 1991). “3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine.” This research study explores the varied effects of MDA analogues on the release of dopamine and serotonin in synaptosomes, shedding light on their pharmacological properties.
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  4. Clare BW (2002). “QSAR of benzene derivatives: a comparison of classical descriptors, quantum theoretic parameters, and flip regression, exemplified by phenylalkylamine hallucinogens.” This research delves into the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of benzene derivatives, particularly phenylalkylamine hallucinogens, employing various descriptors and parameters for comparison.
  5. Min JZ, Shimizu Y, Toyo’oka T, Inagaki S, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y (October 2008). “Simultaneous determination of 11 designated hallucinogenic phenethylamines by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.” This study focuses on the simultaneous determination of 11 designated hallucinogenic phenethylamines, employing ultra-fast liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, providing an analytical approach to identify these compounds.

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