MDPV (Methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is a powerful and potentially dangerous designer drug that has gained notoriety in recent years. As a result, the online marketplace for MDPV research chemicals has grown, with various sellers offering the substance for sale. However, the proliferation of MDPV vendors on the internet raises serious concerns regarding the safety and ethics of purchasing and using this substance.
One of the primary concerns with MDPV research chemical sellers is the lack of regulation and oversight. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, designer drugs like MDPV are not subject to rigorous testing or quality control. This means buyers take significant risks when buying from these online vendors. The purity and potency of the product can vary widely, leading to unpredictable and potentially harmful effects on users.
Furthermore, the marketing tactics employed by MDPV sellers are often deceptive and unethical. They may use misleading product descriptions, false claims about the substance’s safety, and even target vulnerable populations. This jeopardizes the well-being of those who buy MDPV and contributes to the overall negative image of the research chemical industry.
Additionally, the online availability of MDPV research chemicals facilitates easy access for individuals seeking to abuse the substance for recreational purposes. This can lead to various health and social issues, including addiction, criminal behaviour, and adverse physical and mental health outcomes.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 Dosage
- 7 Legal status
- 8 FAQ
- 8.1 1. What is MDPV?
- 8.2 2. How does MDPV work?
- 8.3 3. What are the effects of MDPV?
- 8.4 4. Is MDPV a designer drug or research chemical?
- 8.5 5. Are there any health risks associated with MDPV use?
- 8.6 6. Is MDPV legal in my country?
- 8.7 7. Can MDPV be used safely?
- 8.8 8. Can MDPV cause addiction?
- 8.9 9. What are the dangerous interactions of MDPV with other substances?
- 9 References
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, commonly known as MDPV, goes by various street names like Bath Salts and Monkey Dust. It falls within the category of novel stimulant substances, belonging to the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes. Renowned for its formidable stimulating properties, MDPV primarily operates as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).
Originating in the 1960s, MDPV was initially crafted by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim. Despite demonstrating certain promising attributes, such as reduced toxicity in comparison to amphetamine, it never progressed into a pharmaceutical drug alternative to racemic amphetamine.
MDPV remained relatively obscure until approximately 2004 when it surfaced as a designer drug available to the public. Labeled as “bath salts,” products containing MDPV were once peddled in gas stations and convenience stores across the United States, mirroring the marketing approach employed by Spice and K2, which were marketed as incense.
The subjective effects associated with MDPV encompass heightened stimulation, reduced inhibition, increased libido, appetite suppression, and profound euphoria.
However, the use of MDPV has been linked to various incidents of both psychological and physical harm, including an unusually high number of fatalities. Reports from nine European countries between September 2009 and August 2013 documented a total of 107 non-fatal intoxications and 99 analytically confirmed deaths associated with MDPV.
Given the associated risks, it is strongly recommended that harm reduction practices be diligently employed when considering the use of this substance.
|CAS Number||687603-66-3 |
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID90897461|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||275.343 g/mol (freebase) g·mol−1|
MDPV, scientifically known as 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, belongs to synthetic stimulants within the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes. This compound is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analogue of a-PVP, which emerged in the 1960s. Historically, a-PVP was explored for its potential in treating chronic fatigue and as an appetite suppressant, but its use led to issues of misuse and dependency.
Nonetheless, despite sharing certain structural similarities, the effects of MDPV differ significantly from other methylenedioxy phenylalkylamine derivatives, such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA). Instead, MDPV primarily induces classical stimulant effects, with only mild entactogenic qualities.
Structurally, MDPV bears a resemblance to cathinone, an active alkaloid present in the khat plant, as well as to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine, and other schedule I phenethylamines. Like several other substances in this class, MDPV is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. Furthermore, it has been reported to have hallucinogenic effects.
In summary, MDPV is a synthetic stimulant belonging to the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes, distinct from other related compounds in terms of its effects. While it shares structural connections with various psychoactive substances, its primary impact is that of a classical stimulant with limited entactogenic properties, highlighting its unique pharmacological profile within this chemical family.
MDPV is primarily understood to function as a potent inhibitor of norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake. This mechanism involves a reduction in the reabsorption of norepinephrine and dopamine, leading to elevated concentrations of these two catecholamine neurotransmitters within the synaptic cleft, the gap between neurons.
Consequently, this inhibition results in an intensified and prolonged presence of dopaminergic and noradrenaline signaling at dopamine and norepinephrine receptors on the receiving neuron. While serotonin also plays a role, its influence is comparatively minor. This sudden surge in neurotransmitter levels within the brain is believed to underlie the euphoric effects induced by MDPV.
It’s worth noting that MDPV primarily exhibits reuptake inhibitory properties, rather than releasing properties, making its mode of action more akin to substances like cocaine or methylphenidate than amphetamine. In contrast, amphetamine primarily acts as an agonist, promoting the release of dopamine and noradrenaline indirectly through the activation of the TAAR1 receptor.
Disclaimer: The effects detailed below are sourced from the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a research database based on anecdotal user accounts and the personal assessments of contributors to PsychonautWiki. It is important to approach these effects with a healthy dose of scepticism.
Additionally, it’s crucial to recognize that these effects may not manifest predictably or consistently. Higher doses are more likely to elicit the complete range of effects but also elevate the risk of adverse outcomes, including addiction, severe physical harm, or even death ☠.
- Enhanced stamina (citation needed)
- Irregular heartbeat (citation needed)
- Elevated heart rate (citation needed) – Higher doses of MDPV can lead to a significant and often dangerous increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Appetite suppression
- Gustatory hallucinations
- Diarrhoea – While relatively uncommon, some users have reported experiencing diarrhoea while under the influence of MDPV.
- Nausea – Similarly, nausea is a relatively rare effect of MDPV use.
- Restless leg syndrome
- Auditory distortion
- Auditory hallucinations
The aftermath of a stimulant experience typically involves negative and uncomfortable sensations in contrast to the effects experienced during the peak. This phase, commonly referred to as a “comedown,” occurs due to neurotransmitter depletion and typically includes:
- Cognitive fatigue
- Suppressed motivation
- Thought deceleration
- Increased wakefulness
It’s important to note that many users find the after-effects of MDPV particularly unpleasant when compulsively redosing.
- MDPV’s general cognitive effects align with those of typical stimulants. At moderate dosages, the MDPV high is euphoric and somewhat empathogenic, resulting in heightened motivation, sociability, sexual desire, and concentration. However, higher doses of MDPV can intensify various negative effects, including anxiety and thought disorganization. At extremely high doses or with prolonged use, delusions and psychosis may become likely.
- Cognitive euphoria
- Compulsive redosing – MDPV exhibits an exceptionally potent effect in this regard; some users end up redosing even when the negative effects outweigh the positives.
- Confusion – This effect becomes more prominent at higher doses and after extended periods of wakefulness on the drug.
- Enhanced creativity
- Delusions – High doses may lead to delusional thinking.
- Ego inflation
- Empathy, love, and sociability enhancement – MDPV’s effects in this regard are comparable to, though milder than, those of MDMA.
- Improved focus
- Increased libido
- Enhanced motivation
- Enhanced stamina
- Psychosis – High doses of MDPV have a higher likelihood of inducing states of psychosis compared to most other stimulants (citation needed).
- Time distortion – Described as the sensation of time passing faster than usual when sober.
- Thought acceleration
- Thought organization – Mainly observed at low to moderate doses.
- Thought disorganization – This effect becomes more pronounced at higher doses.
- Wakefulness – High doses can result in prolonged wakefulness lasting many hours after extended use.
MDPV has a relatively short history of human usage, with scant mentions of its use before 2004. While it was once considered a potentially safer alternative to existing stimulants due to its lower perceived toxicity, there has been limited clinical research on human MDPV administration for many decades. However, recent studies investigating persistent psychosis resulting from chronic MDPV use show promising recovery rates among individuals treated with specific antipsychotic medications and first-line antihistamines. There is no conclusive data regarding MDPV’s neurotoxicity in the human brain.
Anecdotal accounts from community members who have experimented with MDPV suggest that no adverse health effects may be associated with the substance when used alone at low doses and in moderation. However, it is essential to recognize that nothing can be entirely guaranteed in this context.
Data from both in-vitro and in-vivo studies have indicated that MDPV shares similar properties with methamphetamine and cocaine. MDPV surpasses these two stimulants in potency in various ways. The excessive stimulation of dopamine and noradrenaline resulting from MDPV use, coupled with the potential inability of MDPV to generate compensatory serotonergic activity, lays the foundation for a range of aggressive and psychotic reactions to the drug. These aggressive tendencies have been observed in emergencies and have received extensive media coverage in the past, such as an incident where an individual under the influence of MDPV viciously assaulted an innocent bystander. It remains uncertain whether this individual had pre-existing mental health conditions or was under the influence of other substances.
Lethal Dose The precise lethal Dose of MDPV remains unknown, with no formal human studies conducted. For reference, a single report suggested a lethal dose of 0.4 micrograms per millilitre or higher for a 39-year-old male based on post-mortem findings. However, this data is highly individualistic, and the variables involved are too diverse to yield meaningful conclusions. MDPV can be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to diagnose poisoning in hospitalised patients or provide evidence in medicolegal death investigations. Expected MDPV concentrations in blood or plasma range from 10–50 μg/L for recreational users, >50 μg/L in intoxicated individuals, and >300 μg/L in cases of acute overdose.
It is strongly advisable to employ harm-reduction practices when using this substance.
Dependence and Abuse Potential MDPV is considered highly addictive, more so than other stimulants, and carries a high potential for abuse, leading to psychological dependence in some users. Individuals who develop addiction may experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuing use. Compulsive redosing is common with MDPV, and the comedown symptoms can be intensely unpleasant.
Psychosis Chronic abuse or single-exposure overdose of MDPV, according to user reports, can potentially trigger psychosis more readily than most stimulants. Psychotic symptoms associated with MDPV may encompass auditory hallucinations, visual disturbances, self-harming urges, severe anxiety, mania, delusions of grandeur, paranoid beliefs, confusion, heightened aggression, and irritability.
Dangerous Interactions Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are safe when used individually can become hazardous, even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list highlights some known dangerous interactions but may not encompass all of them.
Always conduct independent research (e.g., via Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure the safety of combining two or more substances. Some of the interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- Stimulants: Combining MDPV with other stimulants can elevate heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH: These compounds are highly stimulating and physically demanding. Avoid combining them with MDPV to prevent excessive stimulation and cardiovascular strain, which can lead to increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and, in severe cases, heart failure.
- Alcohol: Mixing alcohol with stimulants is risky due to the potential for accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol’s depressant effects, making it difficult to gauge intoxication accurately. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If combined, strictly limit alcohol consumption.
- DXM: Avoid combining DXM with MDPV because DXM inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, increasing the risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis or serotonin syndrome when paired with serotonin releasers like MDMA, methylone, or mephedrone. Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA: The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be heightened in the presence of other stimulants, posing an increased risk of elevated blood pressure and cardiotoxicity.
- MXE: Some reports suggest that combining MXE with MDPV can dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives: Both MDPV and dissociatives carry a risk of delusions, mania, and psychosis, which may be amplified when used together.
- Tramadol: Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold, and when combined with stimulants like MDPV, this risk may increase further.
- MAOIs: Combining MDPV with MAOIs may raise neurotransmitter levels, such as dopamine, to dangerous or fatal levels. Examples of MAOIs include Syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, and certain antidepressants.
- Cocaine: This combination may place additional strain on the heart.
|Light||4 – 8 mg|
|Common||8 – 14 mg|
|Strong||14 – 25 mg|
|Heavy||25 mg +|
|Total||2 – 7 hours|
|Onset||15 – 30 minutes|
|Peak||1 – 4 hours|
|Offset||0.5 – 2 hours|
|After effects||2 – 48 hours|
In September 2014, the European Council determined that Member States should enforce control measures and criminal penalties for MDPV by October 2, 2015.
MDPV has been banned in Western Australia under the Poisons Act 1964. It was included in Appendix A Schedule 9 of the Poisons Act 1964 as of February 11, 2012. Penalties include a maximum $100,000 fine or 25 years in jail for selling or supplying and a $2000 fine or two years’ imprisonment for users. Possession, selling, supplying, or intent to sell can result in charges.
Since June 26, 2019, MDPV has been illegal to possess, produce, and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
MDPV has been classified as a controlled substance as of March 20, 2013.
MDPV is illegal to produce, sell, or possess, as listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
MDPV is controlled under the Narcotic Substances Control Law as of February 2011.
On September 26, 2012, MDPV was listed on Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, following its announcement on June 5, 2012, by Canadian Health Minister Leona Aglukkaq.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance.
MDPV is a Class B controlled substance, covered by the cathinone catch-all clause.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance.
MDPV is considered a controlled substance.
As of November 29, 2010, MDPV is a controlled substance in Estonia.
MDPV is listed as a controlled substance in Finland, categorized as an Appendix IV substance as of June 28, 2010.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance as of August 2, 2012.
MDPV has been controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) since July 26, 2012. Manufacturing, possessing, importing, exporting, buying, selling, procuring, or dispensing without a license is illegal.
MDPV is categorized as a Schedule A controlled psychotropic substance.
MDPV has been included under the Misuse of Drugs Acts since May 11, 2010.
MDPV has been classified as a controlled substance since December 29, 2011.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance as of July 30, 2012.
MDPV has been considered a controlled substance since February 14, 2013.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance.
MDPV is categorized as a Schedule I controlled psychotropic substance as of March 1, 2011.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance.
MDPV is considered a controlled substance. In Sweden, a 33-year-old man was sentenced to six years in prison for possessing 250 grams of MDPV acquired before criminalization.
MDPV is classified as a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
MDPV is categorized as a controlled substance.
MDPV is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom due to the cathinone catch-all clause.
On October 21, 2011, MDPV became a federally scheduled drug under the DEA. A temporary one-year ban was issued, classifying it as a Schedule I substance. On December 8, 2011, under the Synthetic Drug Control Act, the US House of Representatives voted to ban MDPV and several other synthetic drugs previously sold legally in stores.
1. What is MDPV?
- MDPV, or 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, is a synthetic stimulant in the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes. It is known for its stimulating effects on the central nervous system.
2. How does MDPV work?
- MDPV primarily acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). This means it reduces the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, leading to increased concentrations of these neurotransmitters in the brain.
3. What are the effects of MDPV?
- The effects of MDPV include stimulation, increased heart rate, appetite suppression, euphoria, and potential adverse effects like anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations.
4. Is MDPV a designer drug or research chemical?
- Yes, MDPV is often classified as a designer drug or research chemical. It was initially developed for potential medicinal use but is now known for its recreational use.
5. Are there any health risks associated with MDPV use?
- MDPV use can pose health risks, including addiction and psychological and physical harm. There have been cases of fatalities and persistent psychosis associated with MDPV use.
6. Is MDPV legal in my country?
- The legal status of MDPV varies from country to country. It is essential to check your region’s specific laws and regulations to determine its legality.
7. Can MDPV be used safely?
- The safety of MDPV use is a subject of concern. Harm reduction practices are strongly advised if someone chooses to use this substance. However, it is essential to note that no substance can be considered completely safe, and MDPV carries inherent risks.
8. Can MDPV cause addiction?
- Yes, MDPV has a high potential for addiction. Chronic use can lead to psychological dependence, and users may experience cravings and withdrawal effects when attempting to stop using the substance.
9. What are the dangerous interactions of MDPV with other substances?
- MDPV can have dangerous interactions with various substances, including other stimulants, alcohol, DXM, MDMA, MAOIs, cocaine, and more. Combining MDPV with these substances can lead to serious health risks.
- Koppe, H., Ludwig, G., Zeile, K., “MDPV Summary” Link
- “MDPV: EMCDDA–Europol Joint Report on a new psychoactive substance: MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone)” (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
- “MDPV – TripSit wiki” Link
- “MDPV – Erowid Exp – “Personal Research Comedown Guide” Link
- “MDPV – Erowid Exp – “Seemingly Real Paranoid Hallucination Hell” Link
- “MDPV – Erowid Exp – “Psychosis”” Link
- Watterson LR, Kufahl PR, Nemirovsky NE, Sewalia K, Grabenauer M, Thomas BF, et al. (March 2014). “Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)”. Addiction Biology. 19 (2): 165–74. doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00474.x. PMC 3473160 Freely accessible. PMID 22784198.
- Coppola M, Mondola R (January 2012). “3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV): chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of a new designer drug of abuse marketed online”. Toxicology Letters. 208 (1): 12–5. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.10.002. PMID 22008731.
- Studies concerning MDPV hospitalization, pages 19 to 25. Link
- MDPV In-vivo Statistics Link
- Wyman, J. F., Lavins, E. S., Engelhart, D., Armstrong, E. J., Snell, K. D., Boggs, P. D., Taylor, S. M., Norris, R. N., Miller, F. P. (1 April 2013). “Postmortem Tissue Distribution of MDPV Following Lethal Intoxication by ‘Bath Salts'”. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 37 (3): 182–185. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt001. ISSN 0146-4760.
- Baselt, R. C. (2014). Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man (Tenth edition ed.). Biomedical Publications. ISBN 9780962652394.
- Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). “Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol”. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183.
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). “Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity”. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 Freely accessible. eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- “Council Implementing Decision on subjecting 25I-NBOMe, AH-7921, MDPV and methoxetamine to control measures”. Official Journal of the European Union. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (published October 1, 2014). September 25, 2014. pp. 22–26. OCLC 52224955. L 287.
- “Media Statements – Emerging drug, MDPV banned in WA” Link
- Link to Austrian regulation on MDPV
- Link to Brazilian regulation on MDPV
- “Bath salts” drug ingredient banned in Canada, CBC News Link
- Link to Finnish regulation on MDPV
- German legal information on MDPV
- German legal information on MDPV
- “Hovrätten skärper straff i MDPV-dom” Link
- “Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien” Link
- The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010 Link
- “House Votes to Ban “Spice,” “Bath Salts” Link